Bài giảng Enterprise information systems - Chapter 15: ERP Systems and E-Commerce: Intra- and Inter-Enterprise Modeling

Chapter Learning Objectives Compare the goals of current enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems with those of the REA enterprise ontology Describe the needs for intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise system integration Identify information integration tools commonly used in practice (e.g. electronic data interchange, extensible markup language, enterprise application integration software, and electronic business extensible markup language) for intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information systems Discuss strengths and weaknesses of integration tools commonly used in practice for meeting intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information integration needs Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the REA enterprise ontology as a foundation for meeting intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information integration needs

ppt14 trang | Chia sẻ: baothanh01 | Ngày: 12/10/2018 | Lượt xem: 34 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Bài giảng Enterprise information systems - Chapter 15: ERP Systems and E-Commerce: Intra- and Inter-Enterprise Modeling, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Chapter 15ERP Systems and E-Commerce: Intra- and Inter-Enterprise ModelingChapter Learning ObjectivesCompare the goals of current enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems with those of the REA enterprise ontologyDescribe the needs for intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise system integrationIdentify information integration tools commonly used in practice (e.g. electronic data interchange, extensible markup language, enterprise application integration software, and electronic business extensible markup language) for intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information systemsDiscuss strengths and weaknesses of integration tools commonly used in practice for meeting intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information integration needsDiscuss strengths and weaknesses of the REA enterprise ontology as a foundation for meeting intra-enterprise and inter-enterprise information integration needs2Intra-Enterprise Systems: ERP and the REA Enterprise OntologyEnterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SystemsGroups of software applications integrated to form enterprise-wide information systemsSAP, Peoplesoft, and Oracle Applications are the top three ERP vendors Began as back-office applicationsSeen and used only by people within enterprisesBolt-on applications have allowed expansion to front office useBolt-on applications are software programs that can be added to existing ERP applicationsFront-office systems are seen and interacted with by external partners such as customers and suppliers3Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise OntologyDatabase OrientationData must be stored at their most primitive levels, at least for a defined time periodData must be stored only once, in a way that all authorized decision makers can access the dataData must be stored to allow retrieval in various formats as needed for different purposesREA mandates database orientationSome ERP systems meet database orientationSome store the same information multiple places and some do not include all links needed to retrieve information in all needed formatsSingle Source ERP are more likely than Best-of-Breed ERP systems to meet database orientation4Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise OntologySemantic OrientationRequires objects in the system’s conceptual model to correspond as closely as possible to objects in the underlying realityPrecludes use of artificial constructs such as debits, credits, and accounts as base objects in the enterprise systemREA mandates semantic orientationERP systems do not require semantic orientationEvidenced by use of accounting artifacts as base objects5Goals and Methods of ERP Software and the REA Enterprise OntologyStructuring OrientationDemands the use of a pattern as a foundation for the enterprise systemREA mandates use of pattern, with implementation compromises allowed to tailor the system to the businessERP software packages do not exhibit pattern-based design, but rather attempt to build industry “best-practices” into the softwareThe business processes must conform to the software to avoid expensive customizationsWhat if industry “best-practices” are not the best for a specific enterprise? 6Intra-Enterprise IntegrationIntegration among systems of functional areas and divisions within the same enterpriseOften accomplished withIn-house developed softwareSoftware created specifically for an enterprise by its own programming staff or by a consultant Single source ERP Entire system uses one ERP software packageBest-of-Breed ERP Modules from different ERP software packages are used for different functional areasE.g. Peoplesoft for HR, SAP for manufacturing, and Oracle Apps for financialsEnterprise application integration software or inhouse programming solutions may be used to connect the different packages7Electronic Commerce Solutions and Inter-Enterprise System DesignBusiness to Consumer (B2C) E-commerceCustomers obtain information and purchase items from enterprises electronically, for example, via the enterprise’s websiteThe primary differences between physical B2C commerce and electronic B2C commerce are the breaking down of time, place, and form barriersCustomers can access information 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, 52 weeks per yearCustomers do not need to physically transport themselves to seller’s locationSmall firms can look larger with impressive web storefrontsThese differences do not result in different types of conceptual models from physical B2C commerce8Business to Business (B2B) E-commerceShift has occurred that requires conceptual models to change from those that result from typical physical B2B commerce. Shift is away from traditional linear supply chain (value system) to value web Enterprises need information not just about their most direct external partners, but also about indirect external partners, e.g. their customers’ customersFoundations includeTelecommunications infrastructureElectronic data interchange (EDI) The InternetElectronic Commerce Solutions and Inter-Enterprise System Design9Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)Exchange of data between enterprises in a prescribed electronic format, usually through a VAN (value added network). VAN connections and software were proprietary and expensiveEnabled more efficient and effective supply chain managementAttempts are underway to standardize EDI to make EDI more consistent across industries E.g. Open-EDI10E-Commerce and the REA Enterprise OntologyTo accommodate shift in systems needs to an outward focus with e-commerce and inter-enterprise integrationConnections between enterprises occur via resource exchangesConsider the possibility of connecting two enterprise systems at the value system levelEnterprise Q sale = Enterprise R purchaseEnterprise Q cash receipt = Enterprise R cash disbursementHow to merge these views?11E-Commerce and the REA Enterprise OntologyCurrent efforts to envelope REA constructs in the information exchange standards that will comprise the bridges between enterprise systemsUN/CEFACT ebXML group – Bill McCarthy serves as an influential memberEbXML Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language a set of specifications that provides a standard method by which enterprises may communicate Is transaction level interchange of data XBRLeXtensible Business Reporting LanguageTagging system tailored to financial statement line items12SummaryERP systems and current iterations of the REA ontology have similar goal: to facilitate intra-enterprise system integrationShift is occurring that requires inter-enterprise integration of information systemsBrings about new issues for view modeling and integration as prescribed by the REA enterprise ontologyE.g. how to label events common to two different external agent (sale for one, purchase for the other)REA may facilitate inter-enterprise integration once focus is shifted appropriately13Chapter 15End of Chapter