Bài giảng Biochemistry 2/e - Chapter 27: The Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleotides

Outline 27.1 Nucleotide Biosynthesis 27.2 The Biosynthesis of Purines 27.3 Purine Salvage 27.4 Purine Degradation 27.5 Biosynthesis of Pyrimidines 27.6 Pyrimidine Degradation 27.7 Deoxyribonucleotide Biosynthesis 27.8 Synthesis of Thymine Nucleotides

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Chapter 27The Synthesis and Degradation of Nucleotidesto accompanyBiochemistry, 2/ebyReginald Garrett and Charles GrishamAll rights reserved. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: Permissions Department, Harcourt Brace & Company, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, Florida 32887-6777 Outline27.1 Nucleotide Biosynthesis 27.2 The Biosynthesis of Purines 27.3 Purine Salvage 27.4 Purine Degradation27.5 Biosynthesis of Pyrimidines27.6 Pyrimidine Degradation27.7 Deoxyribonucleotide Biosynthesis27.8 Synthesis of Thymine Nucleotides 27.1 Nucleotide BiosynthesisNearly all organisms synthesize purines and pyrimidines "de novo" Many organisms also "salvage" purines and pyrimidines from diet and degradative pathways Ribose generates energy, but purine and pyrimidine rings do not Nucleotide synthesis pathways are good targets for anti-cancer/antibacterial strategies27.2 Biosynthesis of Purines John Buchanan (1948) "traced" the sources of all nine atoms of purine ring N-1: aspartic acid N-3, N-9: glutamine C-4, C-5, N-7: glycine C-6: CO2 C-2, C-8: THF - one carbon units Inosine-5'-P BiosynthesisThe purine ring is built on a ribose-5-P foundation First step: ribose-5-P must be activated - by PPi PRPP is limiting substance for purine synthesis But PRPP is a branch point so next step is the committed step - Gln PRPP amidotransferase Note that second step changes C-1 configuration G- and A-nucleotides inhibit this step - but at distinct sites! Azaserine - Gln analog - inhibitor/anti-tumorSteps 3-5Step 3: Glycine carboxyl condenses with amine Glycine carboxyl activated by -P from ATP Amine attacks glycine carboxyl Step 4: Formyl group of N10-formyl-THF is transferred to free amino group of GAR Step 5: C-4 carbonyl forms a P-ester from ATP and active NH3 attacks C-4 to form imine Steps 6-8Closure of the first ring, carboxylation and attack by aspartate Step 6: Similar in some ways to step 5. ATP activates the formyl group by phosphorylation, facilitating attack by N. Step 7: Carboxylation probably involves electron "push" from the amino group Step 8: Attack by the amino group of aspartate links this amino acid with the carboxyl groupSteps 9-11Loss of fumarate, another 1-C unit and the second ring closure Step 9: Deprotonation of Asp-CH2 leads to cleavage to form fumarate Step 10: Another 1-C addition catalyzed by THF Step 11: Amino group attacks formyl group to close the second ring Note that 5 steps use ATP, but that this is really six ATP equivalents! Dependence on THF in two steps means that methotrexate and sulfonamides block purine synthesis Making AMP and GMPReciprocal control occurs in two ways - see Figures 27.6 and 27.7 GTP is the energy input for AMP synthesis, whereas ATP is energy input for GMP AMP is made by N addition from aspartate (in the familiar way - see Figure 27.6) GMP is made by oxidation at C-2, followed by replacement of the O by N (from Gln) Last step of GMP synthesis is identical to the first two steps of IMP synthesisPurine Salvageand Lesch-Nyhan syndromeSalvage pathways collect hypoxanthine and guanine and recombine them with PRPP to form nucleotides in the HGPRT reaction Absence of HGPRT is cause of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome In L-N, purine synthesis is increased 200-fold and uric acid is elevated in blood This increase may be due to PRPP feed-forward activation of de novo pathways Purine DegradationPurine catabolism leads to uric acid (see Figure 27.9)Nucleotidases and nucleosidases release ribose and phosphates and leave free bases Xanthine oxidase and guanine deaminase route everything to xanthine Xanthine oxidase converts xanthine to uric acid Note that xanthine oxidase can oxidize two different sites on the purine ring systemXanthine Oxidase and GoutXO in liver, intestines (and milk) can oxidize hypoxanthine (twice) to uric acid Humans and other primates excrete uric acid in the urine, but most N goes out as urea Birds, reptiles and insects excrete uric acid and for them it is the major nitrogen excretory compound Gout occurs from accumulation of uric acid crystals in the extremities Allopurinol, which inhibits XO, is a treatmentPyrimidine BiosynthesisIn contrast to purines, pyrimidines are not synthesized as nucleotidesRather, the pyrimidine ring is completed before a ribose-5-P is addedCarbamoyl-P and aspartate are the precursors of the six atoms of the pyrimidine ringCPS IICarbamoyl phosphate for pyrimidine synthesis is made by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPS II)This is a cytosolic enzyme (whereas CPS I is mitochondrial and used for the urea cycle)Substrates are HCO3-, glutamine, 2 ATPSee Figure 27.16de novo Pyrimidine SynthesisAspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) catalyzes the condensation of carbamoyl phosphate with aspartate to form carbamoyl-aspartateNote that carbamoyl phosphate represents an ‘activated’ carbamoyl groupMore Pyrimidine SynthesisStep 3: ring closure and dehydration - catalyzed by dihydroorotaseStep 4: Synthesis of a true pyrimidine (orotate) by DHO dehydrogenaseStep 5: Orotate is joined with a ribose-P to form orotidine-5’-phosphateThe ribose-P donor is PRPPStep 6: OMP decarboxylase makes UMPMetabolic channelingEukaryotic pyrimidine synthesis involves channeling and multifunctional polypeptidesUDP is made from UMP, and UTP is made for UDPCTP sythetase forms CTP from UTP and ATPDeoxyribonucleotide BiosynthesisReduction at 2’-position commits nucleotides to DNA synthesisReplacement of 2’-OH with hydride is catalyzed by ribonucleotide reductaseAn 22-type enzyme - subunits R1 (86 kD) and R2 (43.5 kD)R1 has two regulatory sites, a specificity site and an overall activity siteRibonucleotide ReductaseActivity depends on Cys439, Cys225, and Cys462 on R1 and on Tyr122 on R2Cys439 removes 3’-H, and dehydration follows, with disulfide formation between Cys225 and Cys462The net result is hydride transfer to C-2’Thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase deliver reducing equivalentsRegulation of dNTP SynthesisThe overall activity of ribonucleotide reductase must be regulatedBalance of the four deoxynucleotides must be controlledATP activates, dATP inhibits at the overall activity siteATP, dATP, dTTP and dGTP bind at the specificity site to regulate the selection of substrates and the products madeSynthesis of Thymine NucleotidesThymine nucleotides are made from dUMP, which derives from dUDP, dCDPdUDPdUTPdUMPdTMPdCDPdCMPdUMPdTMPThymidylate synthase methylates dUMP at 5-position to make dTMPN5,N10-methylene THF is 1-C donorNote role of 5-FU in chemotherapy
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