Above regularization for constrained generalized complementarity problems

Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to use the Tikhonov regularization method to solve a constrained generalized complementarity problems, that is to find an element x˜ ∈ C : g(˜ x) ≤ 0; h(˜ x) ≤ 0; ⟨g(˜ x); h(˜ x)⟩Em = 0; where C is a convex closed subset in En, g(x) and h(x) are two continuous functions from an Euclidian space En to Em and ⟨:; :⟩En denotes the scalar product of En. The convergence rates for the regularized solutions is also shown under ordinary conditions in the theory of nonlinear ill-posed problems. We also give a numerical example as an illustration.

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JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF HNUE Mathematical and Physical Sci., 2014, Vol. 59, No. 7, pp. 44-51 This paper is available online at ABOVE REGULARIZATION FOR CONSTRAINED GENERALIZED COMPLEMENTARITY PROBLEMS Nguyen Thi Thuy Hoa1 and Nguyen Buong2 1Informatics Center, Hanoi University of Home Affairs 2Institute of Information Technology, Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to use the Tikhonov regularization method to solve a constrained generalized complementarity problems, that is to find an element x˜ ∈ C : g(x˜) ≤ 0; h(x˜) ≤ 0; ⟨g(x˜); h(x˜)⟩Em = 0; where C is a convex closed subset inEn, g(x) and h(x) are two continuous functions from an Euclidian space En to Em and ⟨:; :⟩En denotes the scalar product of En. The convergence rates for the regularized solutions is also shown under ordinary conditions in the theory of nonlinear ill-posed problems. We also give a numerical example as an illustration. Keywords: Convex set, Tikhonov regularization, continuous function. 1. Introduction Let g(x) and h(x) be two continuous functions from an Euclidian space En to Em where the scalar product and norm of En are denoted by ⟨., .⟩En and ∥.∥En , respectively. The problem of finding an element x˜ ∈ En such that g(x˜) ≤ 0, h(x˜) ≤ 0, ⟨g(x˜), h(x˜)⟩Em = 0, (1.1) where the symbol y = (y1, ..., ym) ≤ 0 is meant that yi ≤ 0, i = 1, ...,m, is called a generalized complementarity problem (GCP). In the case that m = n, g(x) = −x, and h(x) = −F (x), a continuous function in En, (1.1) is the classical nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), we find an element x ∈ En satisfying x ≥ 0, F (x) ≥ 0, ⟨x, F (x)⟩En = 0, Received September 12, 2014. Accepted October 23, 2014. Contact Nguyen Thi Thuy Hoa, e-mail address: nguyenhoanvhn@gmail.com 44 Above regularization for constrained generalized complementarity problems which has attracted much attention due to its various applications (see, [6, 8, 10]). There exist several methods for the solution of the NCP [3, 4, 7]. All of these methods are proposed for solving an equivalent minimization problem or a system of equations. The particular class of methods to be considered are the so-called regularization methods, which are designed to handle ill-posed problems. An ill-posed problem may be difficult to solve since small errors in the computations can lead to a totally wrong solution. The Tikhonov-regularization scheme in [5, 9] for NCP consists in solving a sequence of complementarity problems: xε ≥ 0, Fε(xε) ≥ 0, ⟨xε, Fε(xε)⟩En = 0, where Fε(x) = F (x) + εx, and ε is a small parameter of regularization. In [12] the regularization xε is defined on the basis of H(ε, z) = 0 ⇐⇒ ε = 0, x ∈ S0, where S0 denotes the solution set of NCP, z := (ε, x), H(ε, z) := (ε,G(ε, z))T , Gi(ε, x) := ϕ(xi, Fε,i(x)), i = 1, ..., n, where Fε,i is the ith component of Fε. The convegence of the method is established only for the P0-function F . Moreover, estimating the convergence rate of the regularized solutions is still an opened question. Recently, for GCP (1.1), without P0-property for g and h, we [2] presented an other approach to regularizing (1.1) and gave an estimate of convergence for our method. In this paper, using this idea, we consider the following constrained GCP (CGCP): find an element x˜ ∈ C : g(x˜) ≤ 0, h(x˜) ≤ 0, ⟨g(x˜), h(x˜)⟩Em = 0, (1.2) where C is a convex closed subset in En. Put φi(x) = max{0, gi(x)}, i = 1,m, φm+i(x) = max{0, hi(x)}, i = 1,m. Clearly, Si := {x ∈ En : gi(x) ≤ 0} = {x ∈ En : φi(x) = 0}, i = 1,m, Si+m := {x ∈ En : hi(x) ≤ 0} = {x ∈ En : φm+i(x) = 0}, i = 1,m, the functions φj are also continuous, nonegative on En and φj(y) = 0 ∀y ∈ ∩Nj=1Sj, j = 1, ..., 2m := N. Moreover, ∩Nj=1Sj = {x ∈ En : g(x) ≤ 0, h(x) ≤ 0}. 45 Nguyen Thi Thuy Hoa and Nguyen Buong Evidently, ⟨g(x˜), h(x˜)⟩Em = m∑ i=1 gi(x˜)hi(x˜) = 0⇐⇒ gi(x˜)hi(x˜) = 0, i = 1, ...,m. Therefore, we consider the functions fi(x) = gi(x)hi(x) and set S0 = {x ∈ En : fi(x) = 0, i = 1, ...,m}. (1.3) Then, CGCP (1.2) is equivalent to find an element x˜ belonging to C ∩ (∩Ni=0Si) such that φj(x˜) = min x∈C∩(∩Ni=0Si) φj(x), j = 1, ..., N, (1.4) In order to solve this vector optimization problem, we consider the following unconstrained scalar optimization problem: Find an element x˜ ∈ En such that Fα(xα) = min x∈En Fα(x), (1.5) where Fα(x) is defined by Fα(x) = ∥x− PC(x)∥2 + ∥F (x)∥2Em + N∑ j=1 αµjφj(x) + α∥x− x+∥2En , ≤ µ1 < µj < µj+1 < 1, j = 2, ..., N − 1, F (x) = (f1(x), ..., fm(x)) T , (1.6) where PC(x) is the metric projection of x ∈ En on C and x+ is some element in En. It is well-known [14] that problem (1.5) has a solution xα for each α > 0. 2. Main results We have the following results. Theorem 2.1. Let αk → 0, as k →∞. Then every sequence {xk}, where xk := xαk is a solution of (1.5) with α replaced by αk, has a convergent subsequence. The limit of every convergent subsequence is an x+ - Cminimal norm solution (x+ - CMNS). If, in addition, the x+ - CMNS x˜ is unique, then lim k→∞ xk = x˜. 46 Above regularization for constrained generalized complementarity problems Proof. From (1.5) it follows ∥xk − PC(xk)∥2 + ∥F (xk)∥2Em + N∑ j=1 α µj k φj(x k) + αk∥xk − x+∥2En ≤ ∥y − PC(y)∥2 + ∥F (y)∥2Em + N∑ j=1 α µj k φj(y) + αk∥y − x+∥2En , (2.1) for each fixed element y ∈ En. Taking y ∈ C ∩ (∩Nj=0Sj), we have that y − PC(y) = 0, F (y) = 0 and φj(xk) ≥ φj(y) = 0, j = 1, ..., N. Then, from (2.1) it implies ∥xk − x+∥En ≤ ∥y − x+∥En . (2.2) Consequently, {xk} is bounded. Let {xl} ⊂ {xk} be such that xl → x as l → ∞. We shall prove that x is a solution of (1.2). Indeed, from (2.1) and φj(x) ≥ 0 ∀x ∈ En, we obtain that 0 ≤ ∥xl − PC(xl)∥2, ∥F (xl)∥2Em ≤ αl∥y − x+∥2En . Tending towards l→∞ in the last inequality, the continuous property of PC and F gives x ∈ C and F (x) = 0, i.e., x ∈ C ∩ S0. Now, we prove that x ∈ S1. For any element y ∈ C ∩ S0, from (2.1) and φj(x) ≥ 0∀x ∈ En, j = 1, ..., N , we can write φ1(x l) + α1−µ1l ∥xl − x+∥2En ≤ φ1(y) + N∑ j=2 α µj−µ1 l φj(y) + α 1−µ1 l ∥y − x+∥2En . After passing l → ∞ in the last inequality we obtain φ1(x) ≤ φ1(y) ∀y ∈ C ∩ S0. Note that x is a local minimizer of φ1 on C ∩ S0. But, because of C ∩ S0 ∩ S1 ̸= ∅, x also is a global minimizer of φ1 on En. It means that x ∈ S1. Further, we prove that x ∈ S2. For any y ∈ C ∩ S0 ∩ S1, from (2.1) and φj(x) ≥ 0 ∀x ∈ En, j = 1, ..., N we have φ2(x l) + α1−µ2l ∥xl − x+∥2En ≤ φ2(y) + N∑ j=3 α µj−µ2 l φj(y) + α 1−µ2 l ∥y − x+∥2En . By a similar argument, we obtain x ∈ S2, and x ∈ Sj, j = 3, ..., N − 1. Consequently, x ∈ C ∩ (∩N−1j=0 Sj). Finally, we have to prove that x is a solution of (1.2). As above, for any y ∈ C ∩ (∩N−1j=0 Sj), from (2.1) it deduces that φN(x) ≤ φN(y) ∀y ∈ C ∩ (∩N−1j=0 Sj). Hence, φN(x) = miny∈C∩(∩N−1j=0 Sj) φN(y), i.e., x ∈ SN . The x + - CMNS property of x is followed from (2.2). The theorem is now proven. Theorem 2.2. Assume that the following conditions hold: (i) F is differentiable, 47 Nguyen Thi Thuy Hoa and Nguyen Buong (ii) there exists L > 0 such that ∥F ′(x˜)− F ′(z)∥Em ≤ L∥x˜− z∥En for z in some neighbouhood of x˜ (iii) there exists ω ∈ Em such that x˜− x+ = F ′(x˜)∗ω (iv) L∥ω∥Em < 1. Then, we have ∥xk − x˜∥En = O(√αk). Proof. Using (1.5) and (1.6) with x = x˜ we obtain ∥xk − PC(xk)∥2 + ∥F (xk)∥2Em + N∑ j=1 α µj k φj(x k) + αk∥xk − x˜∥2En ≤ αk[∥x˜− x+∥2En − ∥xk − x+∥2En + ∥xk − x˜∥2En ]. (2.3) Since x˜ ∈ ∩Nj=0Sj , then φj(xk) ≥ φj(x˜) = 0, j = 1, ..., N. From this fact and (2.3) we have ∥F (xk)∥2Em + αk∥xk − x˜∥2En ≤ 2αk⟨ω, F ′(x˜)(x˜− xk)⟩Em . (2.4) Note that condition (ii) implies F (xk) = F ′(x˜)(xk − x˜) + rk (2.5) with ∥rk∥Em ≤ 1 2 L∥xk − x˜∥2En . (2.6) Combining (2.4)-(2.6) leads to ∥F (xk)∥2Em + αk∥xk − x˜∥2En ≤ 2αk∥ω∥Em∥F (xk)∥Em + αk∥ω∥EmL∥xk − x˜∥2En . Thus, ∥F (xk)∥2Em + αk(1− ∥ω∥EmL)∥xk − x˜∥2Rn ≤ 2αk∥ω∥Em∥F (xk)∥Em . (2.7) Therefore, ∥F (xk)∥Em = O(αk). Then, from (2.7) it follows ∥xk − x˜∥En = O(√αk). The theorem is proven. 48 Above regularization for constrained generalized complementarity problems Remarks: (i) In the case that the given functions fi and φj are smooth, then the functional Fα, will have the same property, if instead of φj in (1.5)-(1.6) we use φ2j (see, [14]). (ii) In practice, the set C is chosen such that C ∩ (∩Nj=0Sj) contains only one solution of (1.2). Then, all of the sequence {xk} converges to the solution, as in k →∞. (iii) The regularized solution xk of (1.5) can be approximated by the conjugate gradient method in [14], the method of trust region in [15] or [13]. 3. Nummerical results In this section, in order to show the performence of the above method, we present some numerical results for the case: g(x1, x2) = (x 2 1 + x 2 2 − 25,−x1 + 3), h(x1, x2) = ((x1 − 3)2 + x22 − 4, x1 − 4), (3.1) and the set C = C1 ∩ C2, defined as follows: C1 = {(x1, x2) ∈ E2 : x1 − 4x2 + 1 ≤ 0}, C2 = {(x1, x2) ∈ E2 : 2x1 − x2 − 2 ≥ 0}. (3.2) Clearly, problem (1.1) has four solutions x1 = (3,−2), x2 = (3, 2), x3 = (4,√3), x4 = (4,−√3) and x2 = (3, 2), x3 = (4,√3) are solutions of (1.1) and (1.2), but x2 is a minimal norm solution. Here, we choose: µ1 = 116 , µ2 = 1 8 , µ3 = 1 4 and µ4 = 12 with x+ = (0, 0). The parameter αk = (1 + k)−1 and the starting point for the case k = 1 is x0 = (20; 45) /∈ C. We minimize the following Tikhonov functional: Fαk(x) = ∥x− PC(x)∥2E2 + ∥F (x)∥2E2 + 4∑ j=1 α µj k eφj(x) + αk∥x− x+∥2E2 , where PC(x) = 12 [PC1(x) + PC2(x)] (see, [1]), PCi(x) = x if x ∈ Ci and if x /∈ Ci then PCi(x) = Pli(x) with the line li = {(x1, x2) : aix1 + bix2 = ci and ai, bi, ci are the coefficients, defined in (3.2). eφ1(x) = φ1(x) = {x21 + x22 − 25 if x21 + x22 − 25, 0 if x21 + x 2 2 − 25 ≤ 0 (3.1) eφ2(x) = φ22(x) = { (x1 − 3)2 for x1 > 3 and any x2, 0 for x1 ≤ 3 and any x2, (3.2) 49 Nguyen Thi Thuy Hoa and Nguyen Buong eφ3(x) = φ3(x) = {(x1 − 3)2 + x22 − 4 if (x1 − 3)2 + x22 − 4 > 0, 0 if (x1 − 3)2 + x22 − 4 ≤ 0 (3.3) eφ4(x) = φ24(x) = { (x1 − 4)2 for x1 > 4 and any x2, 0 for x1 ≤ 4 and any x2 (3.4) We use the standard program, presented in [11] as a procedure, and that the final result for each step is the starting point for the next. 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