Bài giảng Business Research Methods - Chapter 3: Thinking Like a Researcher

Learning Objectives Understand . . . The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking. What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.

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Chapter 3Thinking Like a ResearcherMcGraw-Hill/IrwinCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Learning ObjectivesUnderstand . . .The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking.What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis.The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.2Research and Attitudes“Brand communities play a pivotal role for a brand connecting with its consumers, and as one of our Never Ending Friending focus group respondent notes: “I want brands to be my friends,” which means that consumers would like to have common ideas, conversations and benefits delivered to them on their own terms.”Judit Nagy vice president, consumer insightsMySpace/Fox Interactive Media3PulsePoint: Research Revelations55The percent of executives who admitted that their companies do not have an official policy for social networks.4Language of ResearchVariablesModelsTerms usedin researchConstructsOperationaldefinitionsPropositions/HypothesesConceptualschemesConcepts5Language of ResearchClear conceptualizationof conceptsShared understandingof conceptsSuccess of Research6Job Redesign Constructs and Concepts7Operational DefinitionsFreshmanSophomoreJuniorSenior 90 credit hoursHow can we define the variable “class level of students”?8A Variable Is the Property Being StudiedVariableEventActCharacteristicTraitAttribute9Types of VariablesDichotomousMale/FemaleEmployed/ UnemployedDiscreteEthnic backgroundEducational levelReligious affiliationContinuousIncomeTemperatureAge10Independent and Dependent Variable SynonymsIndependent Variable (IV)PredictorPresumed causeStimulusPredicted fromAntecedentManipulatedDependent Variable (DV)CriterionPresumed effectResponsePredicted to.ConsequenceMeasured outcome11Relationships Among Variable Types12Relationships Among Variable Types13Relationships Among Variable Types14Moderating Variables (MV)The introduction of a four-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV), especially among younger workers (MV)The switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales (DV) per worker, especially more experienced workers (MV).The loss of mining jobs (IV) leads to acceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family-supporting income (DV) – particularly among those with a limited education (MV).15Extraneous Variables (EV)With new customers (EV-control), a switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales productivity (DV) per worker, especially among younger workers (MV).Among residents with less than a high school education (EV-control), the loss of jobs (IV) leads to high-risk behaviors (DV), especially due to the proximity of the firing range (MV).16Intervening Variables (IVV)The switch to a commission compensation system (IV) will lead to higher sales (DV) by increasing overall compensation (IVV).A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), especially when free prizes are offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers (EV-control). The results come from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV).17Propositions and HypothesesBrand Manager Jones (case) has a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable).Brand managers in Company Z (cases) have a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). Generalization18Hypothesis FormatsDescriptive HypothesisIn Detroit, our potato chip market share stands at 13.7%.American cities are experiencing budget difficulties.Research QuestionWhat is the market share for our potato chips in Detroit?Are American cities experiencing budget difficulties?19Relational HypothesesCorrelationalYoung women (under 35) purchase fewer units of our product than women who are older than 35. The number of suits sold varies directly with the level of the business cycle.CausalAn increase in family income leads to an increase in the percentage of income saved.Loyalty to a grocery store increases the probability of purchasing that store’s private brand products.20The Role of HypothesesGuide the direction of the studyIdentify relevant factsSuggest most appropriate research designProvide framework for organizing resulting conclusions21Characteristics of Strong HypothesesA Strong Hypothesis IsAdequateTestableBetter than rivals22Theory within Research23The Role of Reasoning24A Model within Research25The Scientific MethodDirect observationClearly defined variablesClearly defined methodsEmpirically testableElimination of alternativesStatistical justificationSelf-correcting process26ResearchersEncounter problemsState problemsPropose hypothesesDeduce outcomesFormulate rival hypothesesDevise and conduct empirical testsDraw conclusions27Curiosity Is the Ally of a ResearcherSynovate’s campaign associates important discoveries in research to a common trait of entrepreneurs: curiosity.As one of the world’s largest research organizations, it claims curiosity is “what makes us tick.”28Sound ReasoningExpositionArgumentInductionDeductionTypes of Discourse29Deductive ReasoningInner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensiveThis survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewingThe interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensive30Inductive ReasoningWhy didn’t sales increase during our promotional event?Regional retailers did not have sufficient stock to fill customer requests during the promotional periodA strike by employees prevented stock from arriving in time for promotion to be effectiveA hurricane closed retail outlets in the region for 10 days during the promotion31Why Didn’t Sales Increase?32Tracy’s Performance33Key TermsArgumentCaseConceptConceptual schemeConstructDeductionEmpiricismExpositionHypothesisCorrelationalDescriptiveExplanatoryRelational Hypothetical constructInductionModelOperational definitionPropositionSound reasoningTheoryVariableControlConfounding (CFV)Dependent (DV)Extraneous (EV)Independent (IV)Intervening (IVV)Moderating (MV)34
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