Bài giảng Investment - chapter 9: The Capital Asset Pricing Model

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) It is the equilibrium model that underlies all modern financial theory Derived using principles of diversification with simplified assumptions Markowitz, Sharpe, Lintner and Mossin are researchers credited with its development

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CHAPTER 9The Capital Asset Pricing ModelIt is the equilibrium model that underlies all modern financial theoryDerived using principles of diversification with simplified assumptionsMarkowitz, Sharpe, Lintner and Mossin are researchers credited with its developmentCapital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)Individual investors are price takersSingle-period investment horizonInvestments are limited to traded financial assetsNo taxes and transaction costsAssumptionsInformation is costless and available to all investorsInvestors are rational mean-variance optimizersThere are homogeneous expectationsAssumptions ContinuedAll investors will hold the same portfolio for risky assets – market portfolioMarket portfolio contains all securities and the proportion of each security is its market value as a percentage of total market valueResulting Equilibrium ConditionsRisk premium on the market depends on the average risk aversion of all market participantsRisk premium on an individual security is a function of its covariance with the marketResulting Equilibrium Conditions ContinuedFigure 9.1 The Efficient Frontier and the Capital Market LineMarket Risk PremiumThe risk premium on the market portfolio will be proportional to its risk and the degree of risk aversion of the investor: The risk premium on individual securities is a function of the individual security’s contribution to the risk of the market portfolioAn individual security’s risk premium is a function of the covariance of returns with the assets that make up the market portfolioReturn and Risk For Individual SecuritiesUsing GE Text ExampleCovariance of GE return with the market portfolio:Therefore, the reward-to-risk ratio for investments in GE would be:Using GE Text Example ContinuedReward-to-risk ratio for investment in market portfolio:Reward-to-risk ratios of GE and the market portfolio:And the risk premium for GE:Expected Return-Beta RelationshipCAPM holds for the overall portfolio because:This also holds for the market portfolio:Figure 9.2 The Security Market LineFigure 9.3 The SML and a Positive-Alpha StockThe Index Model and Realized ReturnsTo move from expected to realized returns—use the index model in excess return form:The index model beta coefficient turns out to be the same beta as that of the CAPM expected return-beta relationshipFigure 9.4 Estimates of Individual Mutual Fund Alphas, 1972-1991The CAPM and RealityIs the condition of zero alphas for all stocks as implied by the CAPM metNot perfect but one of the best availableIs the CAPM testableProxies must be used for the market portfolio CAPM is still considered the best available description of security pricing and is widely acceptedEconometrics and the Expected Return-Beta RelationshipIt is important to consider the econometric technique used for the model estimatedStatistical bias is easily introducedMiller and Scholes paper demonstrated how econometric problems could lead one to reject the CAPM even if it were perfectly validExtensions of the CAPMZero-Beta ModelHelps to explain positive alphas on low beta stocks and negative alphas on high beta stocksConsideration of labor income and non-traded assetsMerton’s Multiperiod Model and hedge portfoliosIncorporation of the effects of changes in the real rate of interest and inflationExtensions of the CAPM ContinuedA consumption-based CAPMModels by Rubinstein, Lucas, and BreedenInvestor must allocate current wealth between today’s consumption and investment for the futureLiquidity and the CAPMLiquidityIlliquidity PremiumResearch supports a premium for illiquidity.Amihud and MendelsonAcharya and PedersenFigure 9.5 The Relationship Between Illiquidity and Average ReturnsThree Elements of LiquiditySensitivity of security’s illiquidity to market illiquidity:Sensitivity of stock’s return to market illiquidity:Sensitivity of the security illiquidity to the market rate of return:
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