Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 28: The Circulatory System

Objectives 28-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 28-2 Describe the structure of the heart and the function of each part. 28-3 Trace the flow of blood through the heart. 29-4 List the most common heart sounds and what events produce them. 28-5 Explain how heart rate is controlled.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 281Objectives28-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter.28-2 Describe the structure of the heart and the function of each part.28-3 Trace the flow of blood through the heart.29-4 List the most common heart sounds and what events produce them.28-5 Explain how heart rate is controlled.The Circulatory System2Objectives (cont.)28-6 List the different types of blood vessels and describe the functions of each.28-7 Define blood pressure and tell how it is controlled.28-8 Trace the flow of blood through the pulmonary and systemic circulation.28-9 List the major arteries and veins of the body and describe their locations.28-10 List and describe the components of blood.The Circulatory System328-11 Give the functions of red blood cells, the different types of white blood cells, and platelets.28-12 List the substances normally found in plasma.28-13 Explain how bleeding is controlled.28-14 Explain the differences among type A blood, type B blood, type AB blood and type O blood.28-15 Explain the difference between Rh positive blood and Rh negative blood. Objectives (cont.)The Circulatory System428-16 Explain the importance of blood typing and tell which blood types are compatible.28-17 List the organs of the lymphatic system and give their locations and functions.28-18 Define lymph and tell how it is circulated in the body.28-19 Describe signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various diseases and disorders of the heart, blood vessels, blood and the lymphatic system.Objectives (cont.)The Circulatory System5Introduction Circulation is the process of sending blood:To the lungs to pick up oxygenTo the digestive system to pick up nutrientsFor delivery of oxygen and nutrients to all organ systems of the body The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels.This system also circulates waste products to certain organ systems so these wastes can be removed from the blood.The lymphatic system is included because it also circulates fluids throughout the body. 6Structure of the HeartA cone-shaped organ about the size of a loose fist Within the mediastinum and extends from the level of the second rib to about the level of the sixth rib Slightly left of the midline of the body. Heart is bordered:laterally by the lungsposteriorly by the vertebral column anteriorly by the sternumInferiorly the heart rests on the diaphragm. 7Coverings and Walls of the Heart Heart CoveringsPericardium - covers the heart and large blood vesselsVisceral pericardium - innermost layer Parietal pericardium - lays on top of the visceral pericardium Heart Walls:Epicardium - the outermost layer Myocardium - the middle layer Endocardium - the innermost layer Click for Larger View8Coverings and Walls of the Heart9Heart Chambers Heart contains four hollow chambers Two atria – left and rightTwo ventricles – left and rightClick for Larger View10The Heart Labeled11The Heart – No LabelsIdentify the Parts of the HeartA.L.M.O.P.S.R.Q.N.C.G.H.I.J.K.E.D.F.B.Click Next for Answers12The Heart – AnswersAortic archRight pulmonary arterySuperior vena cavaAscending aortaRight pulmonary veinsPulmonary semilunar valveRight AtriumRight ventricleTricuspid valveJ. Inferior vena cavaK. Descending aortaL. Left pulmonary arteryM. Pulmonary trunkN. Left pulmonary veinsO. Left atriumP. Aortic semilunar valveQ. Mitral (bicuspid) valveR. SeptumS. Left ventricle13Heart Valves Tricuspid valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts Bicuspid valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts Pulmonary valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle Aortic valve - prevents blood from flowing back into the left ventricle 14Path of Blood Through the HeartDeoxygenated blood in from bodyDeoxygenated blood inOxygenated blood in lungsAtria ContractVentricles ContractDeoxygenated blood out to lungsOxygenated blood out to body15Heart SoundsOne cardiac cycle - you can hear two heart sounds (lubb and dupp) when valves in the heart snap shut Lubb – 1st sound - when the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and bicuspid valves snap shut Dupp – 2nd sound - when the atria contract and the pulmonary and aortic valves snap shut. 16Apply Your KnowledgeYour 8-year-old patient has asked you why his heart makes two noises. What would you tell him?17Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerLubb – 1st sound - when the ventricles contract and the tricuspid and bicuspid valves snap shut Dupp – 2nd sound - when the atria contract and the pulmonary and aortic valves snap shutYour 8-year-old patient has asked you why his heart makes two noises. What would you tell him?18Heart Rate Cardiac conduction system consists of a group of structures that send electrical impulses through the heart.When cardiac muscle receives an electrical impulse, it will contract. 19Blood VesselsArteries and Arterioles strongest of the blood vesselscarry blood away from the heart easily and are under high pressure have thick walls Veins and Venules no pressure in veins - does not move very easily valves in veins prevent blood from flowing backwards 20Blood Vessels - CapillariesBranches of arterioles - the smallest type of blood vessel Connect arterioles to venules - only about one cell layer thickOxygen and nutrients can pass out of a capillary into a body cell Carbon dioxide and other waste products can pass out of a body cell into a capillary 21Blood Pressure Force blood exerts on the inner walls of blood vessels - highest in arteries and lowest in veins Systolic pressure - ventricles contract, blood pressure is greatest in the arteries Diastolic pressure -the ventricles relax, blood pressure in arteries is at its lowestReported as the systolic number over the diastolic number. 22Control of Blood Pressure Blood pressure is controlled to a large extent by the amount of blood pumped out of the heart Starling's law of the heart -blood enters the left ventricle, the wall of the ventricle is stretched. The more the wall is stretched, the harder it will contract, and the more blood it will pump out.Baroreceptors also help regulate blood pressure Low BP causes the cardiac center of the brain to increase heart rate23Paths of CirculationPulmonary Circuit right atrium --> right ventricle --> pulmonary trunk --> pulmonary arteries --> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> heart (left atrium)Systemic Circuitleft atrium --> left ventricle --> aorta --> arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> vena cava --> heart (right atrium)24Major Blood VesselsArterial Systemcarry oxygen rich blood away from the heart pulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor blood paired - left and right artery of the same name 25Major Blood Vessels (cont.)Venous SystemVessels that carry blood toward the heart Pulmonary veins –carry oxygen rich blood Large veins often have the same names as the arteries they run next to Hepatic portal system collection of veins carrying blood to the liver Click for Larger View26Major Blood Vessels (cont.)27Apply Your KnowledgeYour patient wants to know what the bottom number of his blood pressure means. What would you say?28Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerDiastolic pressure is when the ventricles of the heart relax, blood pressure in arteries is at its lowest.Your patient wants to know what the bottom number of his blood pressure means. What would you say?29Components of Blood A type of connective tissueRed blood cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells (leukocytes Platelets-contains cell fragments Plasma - fluid part of blood (55% of blood)Average-sized adult contains - 5 liters of blood Hematocrit (45%) -percentage of blood cells in a sample of blood30Red Blood CellsTransport oxygen throughout the body Are biconcave-shaped cells that are small enough to pass through capillaries Hemoglobin is a pigment found on RBCsOxyhemoglobin carries oxygen and is bright red in colorDeoxyhemoglobin does not carry oxygen and is a darker red color31Red Blood Cells (cont.)32White Blood Cells Granulocytes Neutrophils – (55%) destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in the blood stream Eosinophils – (3%) getting rid of parasitic infections such as worm infections Basophils –(1%) control inflammation and allergic reactions AgranulocytesMonocytes – (8%) destroying bacteria, viruses, and toxins in blood Lymphocytes – (33%) immunity for the body 33Blood PlateletsFragments of cells that are found in the blood streamThrombocytes are important in the clotting of blood130,000 to 360,000 platelets per cubic millimeter of blood   34Controlling BleedingHemostasis - the stoppage of bleedingThree processes of hemostasisBlood vessel spasmPlatelet plug formationBlood coagulation35Platelet Plug Formation36Blood Plasma Blood plasma is the liquid portion of blood. Consists of:Mostly water Mixture of proteinsAlbuminsGlobulins FibrinogenNutrientsAmino acidsGlucoseNucleotidesLipids GasesElectrolytes Waste products37Apply Your KnowledgeDoes the pulmonary arteries carry high levels oxygen or low levels of oxygen in the blood?38Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Pulmonary arteries carry oxygen poor blood Does pulmonary arteries carry high levels oxygen or low levels of oxygen in the blood?39ABO Blood GroupBlood TypeAntigen PresentAntibody PresentBlood that can be receivedAABA & 0BBAB & OABABNoneA, B, AB, & O 0NoneA & BO40RH Blood Group Rh positive person has red blood cells that contain the Rh antigenRh negative red blood cells do not contain the Rh antigen Rh positive blood is given to Rh negative person and antibodies formSecond time this occurs antibodies will bind to the donor cells and agglutination will occur41Apply Your KnowledgeWhat type(s) of blood could a patient who has type B blood receive without complications?42Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Type B & OWhat type(s) of blood could a patient who has type B blood receive without complications?43The Lymphatic System A network of connecting vessels that collect fluids between cells Lymphatic vessels then return this fluid (called lymph) to the blood stream Picks up lipids from the digestive organs and transports them to the blood stream Defend our bodies against disease-causing agents called pathogens 44The Lymphatic SystemLymph Nodes digest unwanted pathogens in the lymphstart an immune response against the pathogen Thymus production of T lymphocytes & hormone called thymosin Spleenlargest lymphatic organ spleen also removes worn out red blood cells from the circulation 45Lymph Fluid Tissue fluid that has entered a lymphatic capillaryPushed through the vessels by the squeezing action of skeletal muscles Contain valves that prevent the backflow of lymph Lymph Node46Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory SystemAnemia - a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in blood to carry an adequate amount of oxygen to body cells Aneurysm - defined as a ballooning of an artery wall that results when the wall of the blood vessel becomes weak 47Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.)Carditis - an inflammation of the heart most commonly referred to as endocarditis, myocarditis, or pericarditis depending on the layer of the heart affectedCongestive heart failure - a slowly developing condition in which the heart weakens over time. 48Coronary artery disease – (atherosclerosis) characterized by narrowing of coronary arteriesHeart arrhythmias – abnormal heart rhythms in which the heart beats too quickly (tachycardia) or too slowly (bradycardia) Heart attack (myocardial infarction) – damage to cardiac muscle that is due to a lack of blood supply Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.)49Hypertension (high blood pressure) defined as consistent resting blood pressure 140/90 mm Hg or higherLeukemia a condition in which the bone marrow produces a large number of white blood cells that are not normalMurmurs simply defined as abnormal heart sounds Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.)50Sickle cell anemia – a condition in which abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to change to a sickle (crescent) shape Thrombophlebitis – a condition in which a blood clot and inflammation develop in a vein Varicose veins – dilated veins and are usually seen in the legs Diseases and Disorders of the Circulatory System (cont.)51Apply Your KnowledgeThe doctor has told your patient she has anemia. How would you explain this to the her?52Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerAnemia is a condition in which a person does not have enough red blood cells or hemoglobin in blood to carry an adequate amount of oxygen to body cells. The doctor has told your patient she has anemia. How would you explain this to the her?53Summary Medical AssistantKnowledge of the circulatory system will assist you in providing care for the patient with diseases and disorders of the circulatory system. You must have knowledge of this system especially when assisting the physician during his examination of the circulatory system.54End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 55
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