Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 30: The Respiratory System

Objectives 30-1 Explain the functions of the respiratory system. 30-2 Explain the difference between internal and external respiration. 30-3 Describe how the larynx produces voice sounds. 30-4 List the structures contained within the lungs. 30-5 Describe the coverings of the lungs and chest cavity. 30-6 Describe the events that lead to the inspiration and expiration of air. 30-7 Explain how the brain controls breathing and how normal breathing patterns can be disrupted.

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Medical Assisting Chapter 30PowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski • Booth • Pugh • Thompson • WhickerChapterCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.1The Respiratory SystemObjectives30-1 Explain the functions of the respiratory system.30-2 Explain the difference between internal and external respiration. 30-3 Describe how the larynx produces voice sounds.30-4 List the structures contained within the lungs.30-5 Describe the coverings of the lungs and chest cavity.30-6 Describe the events that lead to the inspiration and expiration of air.30-7 Explain how the brain controls breathing and how normal breathing patterns can be disrupted.2The Respiratory SystemObjectives (cont.)30-8 List and explain various respiratory volumes and tell how they are used to diagnose respiratory problems.30-9 Describe how oxygen is transported from the lungs to body cells.30-10 Describe how carbon dioxide is transported from body cells to the lungs.30-11 Describe the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various respiratory disorders and diseases. 3The Respiratory SystemThe major function of the respiratory system is ventilation (breathing).This system also functions to deliver oxygen (O2) to the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream.External RespirationO2O2O2CO2CO2CO2Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide4Organs of the Respiratory SystemOrgans of the respiratory system:  Nose  Pharynx  Larynx  Trachea  Bronchial tree  Lungs5Organs of the Respiratory System (cont.)The Nasal CavityNasal septum divides the cavity into right and left portionsNasal conchae extend from walls of nasal cavity Mucous membrane warms and moistens the air and cilia helps eliminate particlesThe Paranasal SinusesThese are air-filled spaces within the skull bonesServe to reduce weight of the skull and give your voice a certain toneSkull bones with sinuses include:FrontalSphenoidEthmoidMaxillae bones6The PharynxAn organ of both the respiratory and digestive systemThe Larynx Larynx also called the “voice box”Moves air in and out of the trachea, and produces voiceComposed of three cartilages:Thyroid cartilage Epiglottic cartilageCricoid cartilage Organs of the Respiratory System (cont.)7Organs of the Respiratory System (cont.)GlottisTrue Vocal CordsFalse Vocal CordsPosterior Portion of TongueVocal CordsStretched between the thyroid cartilage and the cricoid cartilageUpper vocal cords are false cords and lower vocal cords are true vocal cords.The glottis is the opening between the vocal cordsThe more vocal cords are stretched, the higher the voice pitch.8The Trachea, Bronchi and BronchiolesReferred to as the windpipeTubular organ made of rings of cartilage and smooth muscleLined with cells possessing ciliaExtends from the larynx to the bronchi.TracheaTracheaCilia moves mucus up to the throat where it is swallowed. Smoking destroys cilia. Organs of the Respiratory System (cont.)9The LungsCone-shaped organsRight lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobesThe membranes surrounding the lungs is called the pleuraThe lungs contain connective tissue, the bronchial tree, nerves, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels.Organs of the Respiratory System (cont.)10Apply Your KnowledgeWhich of the following sites would be the most lethal if obstructed by a foreign body? Right bronchus Left bronchiole Trachea 11Apply Your Knowledge - AnswerWhich of the following sites would be the most lethal if obstructed by a foreign body? Right bronchus Left bronchiole Trachea 12SnoringOccurs due to vibration of soft tissues when muscles of the palate, tongue and throat relax.Affects approximately 50% of men and 25% of women over the age of 40.Causes daytime sleepiness and may be associated with sleep apnea.Common Causes enlargement of tonsils or adenoids being overweight alcohol consumption nasal congestion deviated nasal septum13Snoring (cont.)Mayo Clinic’s Sleep Disorders Center rating of snoring:Heard from close proximityGrade 1Grade 2Heard from anywhere in the bedroomGrade 3Heard from just outside the bedroom door with door openGrade 4Heard outside the bedroom door with the door closed14Lifestyle Modifications to Reduce SnoringLose weightChange sleeping positionAvoid using alcohol or medications that induce sleepUse nasal strips to widen the nasal passagesUse dental devices to keep airways openSnoring (cont.)Some patients may require surgery to remove excess soft tissue or a portion of the soft palate.15The Mechanisms of BreathingInspirationExpirationBreathing or pulmonary ventilation, consist of inspiration (inhalation) and expiration (exhalation). The medulla oblongata controls the rhythm and depth of breathing and the pons controls the rate of breathing.Air rich in O2 enters the lungs from the atmosphereThe diaphragm contracts or flattensThe intercostal muscles raise the ribs Air rich in C0 2 exits the lungs The diaphragm relaxes The intercostal muscles lower the ribs16Respiratory VolumesReflects the amount of air that moves in or out of the lungs during a normal breathAmount of air that can be forcefully inhaled following a normal inhalationAmount of air that can be forcefully exhaled following a normal exhalation Tidal VolumeInspiratoryReserve VolumeExpiratoryReserve Volume17Respiratory VolumesAmount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after the deepest inhalation possible. Represents the volume of air that always remains in the lungs even after a forceful exhalation.This measure reflects the total amount of air the lungs can hold.Residual VolumeTotal LungCapacityVital Capacity18The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the BloodMost of the body’s oxygen binds to hemoglobin in the red blood cells. This transport system is called oxyhemoglobin.When carbon dioxide gets into the bloodstream bicarbonate ions are formed and some carbon dioxide binds to hemoglobin.When bicarbonate ions reach the lungs, an enzyme changes them back into carbon dioxide and water.19The medical assistant working for a general practitioner is taking the medical history of a new patient. The patient states “Even after sleeping 8 to 9 hours I still feel really tired.” The patient’s spouse states, “Well you sure snore loud, as if the sleep is so good.”Which of the following is a possible cause for the excessive fatigue? Periods of apnea Depression TuberculosisApply Your Knowledge20The medical assistant working for a general practitioner is taking the medical history of a new patient. The patient states “Even after sleeping 8-9 hours I still feel really tired.” The patient’s spouse states, “Well you sure snore loud, as if the sleep is so good.”Which of the following is a possible cause for the excessive fatigue? Periods of apnea Depression TuberculosisApply Your Knowledge - Answer21Common Respiratory ConditionsAsthma is a condition in which the bronchial tree becomes obstructed due to inflammationCauses includes allergens, cigarette smoke, pollutants, cold temperatures and exerciseSigns and symptoms include difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and a tight feeling in the chestTreatment include avoidance of allergens, steroid inhalers, bronchodilators and stopping smoking22Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchiMay be caused by viruses, gastroesophageal reflux, exposure to cigarette smoke, pollutants and fumes.Signs and symptoms includes chills, fever, difficulty breathing, coughing up yellow-gray or green mucus, chest tightness, wheezing and difficulty breathingTreatment with rest, fluids, cough medicines, humidifiers, inhalers and antibiotics for smokersCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)23Common Respiratory Conditions (cont.)DiseaseCausesSigns & SymptomsTreatmentsChronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseCigarette smoke and air pollutionFatigue, difficulty breathing & frequent coughingLifestyle changes, inhalers, stop smokingEmphysemaCigarette smoke, pollutants, dustChronic cough, weight loss, fatigue, shortness of breathStop smoking, vaccinations, antibiotics, oxygen, bronchodilators24Common Respiratory Conditions (cont.)DiseaseCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentInfluenza (Flu)Numerous virusesRunny nose, sore throat, sneezing, fever, chills, diarrhea, loss of appetiteBed rest, fluids, antiviral medicationsLaryngitisViruses, bacteria, excessive talking, allergies, smoking, frequent use of alcoholHoarse voice, sore throat, dry cough and throatAntibiotics, avoidance of cigarettes and alcohol25DiseaseCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentLegionnaire’s DiseaseBacteria that grows in air conditioning systemsFever, fatigue, difficulty breathing, chest pain, headacheAntibiotics, respiratory therapy and supportive therapyLung CancerSmoking, exposure to radon, asbestos and industrial carcinogensCough, hemoptysis, difficulty breathing, weight loss, chronic hoarseness, wheezingDepends on type of cancer and stage but chemotherapy and radiation are common treatmentsCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)26DiseaseCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentPleuritisViruses, pneumonia, autoimmune diseases such as lupus, chest traumaFever or chills, dry cough, shortness of breath, chest pain during breathingPain medications, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, removal of fluid around the lungsPneumoniaBacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, foreign matter entering the lungsFever or chills, headache, fatigue, coughing up rust-colored, green or yellow mucusRest, fluids, antibiotics, over-the-counter pain medicationsCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)27DiseaseCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentPneumothoraxChest trauma, and unknown causesTightness in the chest, sharp chest pain, rapid heart rate, shortness of breathChest tube, surgeryPulmonary EdemaCongestive heart failure, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disorders, lung infections, chest injuries and many othersShortness of breath, wheezing, weight gain, pink mucus, pale skin, sweatingOxygen therapy, diuretics, morphineCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)28DiseaseCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentPulmonary EmbolismHeart attacks, fractured hips, cancer, long periods of inactivityFainting, sudden shortness of breath, hemoptysis, wheezing, tachycardia, chest painSupport stockings, clot-dissolving medications, anti-coagulants, surgical filter insertionSevere Acute Respiratory SyndromeVirusesFever, chills, headache, dry cough, muscle achesRest, anti-viral medicationsCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)29DiseasesCausesSigns and SymptomsTreatmentSinusitisBacteria, blockage of sinus openingsFever, cough, sore throat, facial pain, nasal decongestionNasal decongestants, nasal steroid sprays, antibioticsTuberculosisBacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosisCough lasting >3 weeks, fever or chills, weight loss, night sweats, pain when breathingTB testing, Drug therapyCommon Respiratory Conditions (cont.)30Sudden infant death syndrome has no specific signs or symptoms and no known causes.Common Respiratory Conditions (cont.)Risk FactorsMore common in male infantsBabies between the ages of 2 weeks and 6 months are most susceptiblePremature or low birth weight babies are at riskBabies with a sibling that died of SIDSAfrican American and Native American babies are at highest riskBabies who were prenatally exposed to cocaine, heroine, or nicotineBabies who sleep on their stomachs are three times more likely to die from SIDS31Which of the following diseases must all health care workers be screened for annually? Pneumonia Tuberculosis Legionnaire’s diseaseApply Your Knowledge32Apply Your Knowledge - AnswerWhich of the following diseases must all health care workers be screened for annually? Pneumonia Tuberculosis Legionnaire’s disease33End of ChapterEnd of Chapter34
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