Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 38: Assisting with a General Physical Examination

Objectives: 38-1 State the purpose of a general physical examination. 38-2 Describe the role of the medical assistant in a general physical examination. 38-3 Explain safety precautions used during a general physical examination. 38-4 Outline the steps necessary to prepare the patient for an examination.

ppt34 trang | Chia sẻ: nguyenlinh90 | Lượt xem: 569 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang tài liệu Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 38: Assisting with a General Physical Examination, để xem tài liệu hoàn chỉnh bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 381Objectives:38-1 State the purpose of a general physical examination.38-2 Describe the role of the medical assistant in a general physical examination.38-3 Explain safety precautions used during a general physical examination.38-4 Outline the steps necessary to prepare the patient for an examination.Assisting with a General Physical Examination2Objectives (cont.)38-5 Explain ways to assist patients from different cultures, patients with disabilities, children, and pregnant women.38-6 Identify and describe the six examination methods used in general physical examination.38-7 List the components of a general physical examination.Assisting with a General Physical Examination3Objectives (cont.):38-9 Explain the special needs of the elderly for patient education.38-10 Identify ways to help a patient follow up on a doctor’s recommendations. Assisting with a General Physical Examination4Introduction You must make the client comfortable and assist the physician during the physical examinationPhysical examination is the first step in the process for the physician. A skilled medical assistant can create an atmosphere that results in a positive outcome for the patient during the physical examination.5Purpose of General Physical Examination Examine a healthy person to confirm an overall state of health and provide baseline values for vital signs.Examine a patient to diagnose a medical problem.6Role of Medical AssistantAssist both the doctor and the patientYour presence enables the doctor to perform his examination as effectively as possibleYou do the interview, write an accurate history, determine vital signs, and measure weight and height. Your responsibilities include ensuring that all instruments and supplies are readily available to the doctor during the examination.7Safety PrecautionsPerform a thorough hand washing.Wear gloves whenever it is possible to have contact with blood, body fluids, nonintact skin, or moist surfaces.Wear a mask if the patient is suspected of having a infectious disease that can be transmitted by airborne droplets8Safety Precautions (cont.)Wear personal protective equipment if patient is highly contagious.Discard all disposable equipment and supplies in biohazardous waste containersClean and disinfect the exam room after each patient.9Preparing the Patient for an ExaminationEmotional – explain exactly what will occurPhysical – offer the bathroom and instruct the patient on how to disrobe and don a exam gownPositioning and draping – help patient assume needed exam position and drape to provide privacy10Examination Positions SittingSupine or proneDorsal recumbentLithotomy or proctologicTrendelenburg'sFowler’sSims’ or knee-chest 11Special Considerations: Culture Avoid stereotyping an individual or group on the basis of a single patient’s behavior.Avoid making judgment about patients based on your experience with other patientsPatients from different cultures may never have had a medical examination and may not know what to expect12Special Considerations: DisabilitiesPatients may require extra assistance in preparing for a general physical examination.You may need to help them disrobe, move from the mobility device to the exam table and assume certain positions on or off the exam table. 13Special Considerations: ChildrenOlder infants and toddler may be examined on the parent’s lap.Preschool children can be placed on the exam table with parent nearby.Doctors will perform percussion and auscultation first and painful areas last.Doctors may examine older children’s genitalia last because it may be embarrassing for the child. 14Special Considerations: Pregnant WomenProne and lithotomy positions are not recommended. Other positions may be difficult or impossible to achieve.15Apply Your KnowledgeA elderly female patient will needs her lower abdomen and genitalia examined by the physician. What would be the best position to place her in and why?16Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerDorsal recumbent position - This position may be recommended over lithotomy since an elderly patient may have difficult placing her legs in stirrups.A elderly female patient will needs her lower abdomen and genitalia examined by the physician. What would be the best position to place her in and why?17Examination MethodsInspection –visual examination Palpation- uses touch extensively to assess characteristics of the body.Percussion – involves tapping and striking the body to hear sounds or feel vibrations.Auscultation – process of listening to body sounds.Mensuration – process of measuring Manipulation –systemic moving of a patient’s body parts.18Components of the General Physical ExaminationOverall appearance and the condition of the patient’s skin, nails and hair.Doctor examines the body in the following order:Head, neck, eyes, ears, nose and sinuses, mouth and throatChest and lungs, heart, breastsAbdomen, genitalia, and rectumMusculoskeletal and neurological system19Components of the General Physical Examination (cont.)Be familiar with the components and the equipment used for a general physical examination.Ensure the patient is comfortable and his/her modesty is protected.Can you name these pieces of examination equipment?20General Physical Examination -Head, Neck, Eyes, Ears Head - any abnormal conditions of scalp, skin, or growthsNeck – checks for symmetry and range of motionEyes – check for the presence of disease or abnormalities Ears – checks for symmetry, presence of lesions, redness, or swelling21General Physical Examination -Nose, Sinuses, Mouth and ThroatNose- checks for presence of infection or allergySinuses – checks for any discharge, lesions, obstructions, swelling or inflammationMouth – check general impression, condition of gums and teethThroat – checks for redness or swelling22General Physical Examination -Chest and Lungs, Heart, BreastsChest – checks shape, symmetry and postural position and any deformityLungs – listens to lung sounds to check for any abnormal breathingHeart – check the size by percussion and listens for abnormal heart soundsBreasts – checks for symmetry, contour, masses, or retracted areas23General Physical Examination -Abdomen, and GenitaliaAbdomen –listens for bowel sounds, palpates all four quadrants and inspects for color, shape and symmetryGenitalia – if patient male and doctor is female have another male present, if patient is female and doctor is male have another female present24General Physical Examination - RectumHave patient in dorsal recumbent or Sims’ positionDigital examination to palpate the rectum for lesions or irregularitiesTest for blood in the stool by doing Hemoccult or Seracult testAssist patient in personal hygiene as needed25General Physical Examination- Musculoskeletal & Neurological Musculoskeletal – checks for good posture and ask the patient to walk to assess gaitDetermines range of motion, strength of various muscle groups and body measurementsNeurological – evaluates reflexes, mental and emotional status and sensory and motor functions26Completing the ExaminationHelp the patient into a sitting position.Allow the patient to perform any necessary self-hygiene measures.Check with doctor about other tests or procedures.27Patient EducationPay special attention to educating patient about risk factors for disease.Be sure that you address the patient at a language level they can understand without talking down to them.Be sure they understand fully.28Special Problems - ElderlyCommon problems:IncontinenceDepressionLack of information on preventive medicinesLack of compliance when taking medications29Follow-upFollow-up may include:Scheduling the patient for future visits.Making outside appointments for diagnostic tests.Helping the patient and patient’s family plan for home nursing care.Helping the patient obtain help from community or social services.30Apply Your KnowledgeThe physician will be performing a rectal examination on a patient. What position should you place the patient in and what equipment should you have available for the physician?31Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerRectal examinations are usually performed in the Sim’s position, but protologic can be used. Equipment needed: drape, gloves, lubricant, tissues, and Hemoccult or Seracult test equipmentThe physician will be performing a rectal examination on a patient. What position should you place the patient in and what equipment should you have available for the physician?32Summary Medical Assistant The general physical examination is the cornerstone of medical care. You must address the comfort, privacy and education needs of the patient and anticipate the needs of the physician during the examination.33End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 34
Tài liệu liên quan