Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 50: Principles of Pharmacology

Objectives: 50-1 Describe the five categories of pharmacology. 50-2 Differentiate between chemical, generic, and trade names for drugs. 50-3 Describe the major drug categories. 50-4 List the main sources of drug information. 50-5 Contrast over-the-counter and prescription drugs. 50-6 Compare the five schedules of controlled substances.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 501Objectives:50-1 Describe the five categories of pharmacology.50-2 Differentiate between chemical, generic, and trade names for drugs.50-3 Describe the major drug categories.50-4 List the main sources of drug information.50-5 Contrast over-the-counter and prescription drugs.50-6 Compare the five schedules of controlled substances.Principles of Pharmacology 2Objectives:50-7 Describe how to register a physician with the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) for permission to administer, dispense, and prescribe controlled drugs.50-8 Describe how vaccines work in the immune system.50-9 Identify patient education topics related to the use of nonprescription and prescription drugs. Principles of Pharmacology3Introduction Pharmacology – Science of drugsMedication mistakes can injure or even cause death of a patient. This chapter will provide an overview of the role of drugs in ambulatory medical facilities You will need to have a good working knowledge of the foundations of pharmacology.4Medical Assistant’s Role in PharmacologyYou will need to:Have basic knowledge of medicationsBe attentive to ensure that the physician is aware of all the medications a patient is taking.Ask patients about use of alcohol, vitamins, herbal medications, or recreational drugs5Drugs and PharmacologyDrug - chemical compound used to prevent, diagnose or treat a disease or other abnormal conditionPharmacologist - specialist in pharmacology A doctor prescribes a drug when he gives a patient a prescription to be filled by a pharmacy.You are responsible to administer a drug by giving it directly by injection, by mouth, or by any other route to introduce the drug into a patient’s body.6Categories of PharmacologyPharmacognosy – study of characteristics of natural drugs and their sourcesPharmacodynamics – study of what drugs do to the bodyPharmacokinetics – what the body does to drugsPharmacotherapeutics – study of how drugs are used to treat diseaseToxicology – study of poisonous effects of drug7Sources of DrugsMany drugs originate as natural productsPlantsAnimalsMineralsBacteria or fungiName this source of drug and the drug it is used to make.Foxglove to make digitoxin8Food and Drug Administration (FDA)An agency of the Department of Health and Human Services.Regulates the manufacture and distribution of every drug used in the U.S.Requires drug manufacturers to perform clinical tests on new drugs before the drugs are used by humans.Manufacturer must continue to demonstrate the drug’s safety and efficacy.FDA can withdraw a drug from the market at any time if evidence suggests that it is no longer safe or effective.9PharmacodynamicsStudy of what a drug does to the bodyIncludes interaction between the drug and target cells or tissues and the body’s response to that interaction10PharmacokineticsThe study of what the body does to a drug includes:Absorbs – converts a drug into a form the body can useMetabolizes – drug molecules are transformed into simpler products Distributes – transporting a drug from its site of administration to its site of action Excretes –manner in which a drug is eliminated from the body11PharmacotherapeuticsDrug Names:Generic – official name International nonproprietary nameChemical nameTrade name – brand or proprietary nameYou will probably use only generic or trade names.12Apply Your KnowledgeWhich of the following is a generic drug name?BiocefKeflexCephalexin13Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerWhich of the following is a generic drug name?BiocefKeflexCephalexin14Pharmacotherapeutics - Drug CategoriesCategorized by:Their action on the bodyGeneral therapeutic effectBody system affectedExample:Antacid – neutralizes stomach acidsTumsBasaljel 15Pharmacotherapeutics – Indications and LabelingIndications – used to identify purpose or reason for using a drug.FDA – approved indications which must be part of labeling Multiple uses of a drug are possible.When a drug is used for multiple indications one or more may not be in its labeling.Example: Benadryl can be used for antihistamine or temporary sedative.16Pharmacotherapeutics – Safety and EfficacySafety is how many and what kinds of adverse effects are associated with the drug.An adverse reaction may require immediate action.Be alert to complaints from patient after starting new drug.17Pharmacotherapeutics – Safety and Efficacy (cont.) When a patient complains a drug is not working, it may be due to any of the following:Patient does not understand how the drug worksDosage needs to be adjustedTherapeutic level has not been reachedWrong drug was prescribedSome drugs work better with one patient than anotherSome forms of drugs work betterThe trade name drug may work even if the generic does not18Pharmacotherapeutics – Kinds of TherapyAcute – improve life threatening or serious conditionEmpiric – give until other tests prove another therapy is appropriateMaintenance – maintain a conditionPalliative – reduce the severity of a condition or painProphylactic – prevent a disease or conditionReplacement – provide chemicals missing by the patientSupportive – for condition other than primary diseaseSupplemental – avoid deficiency 19Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is Pharmacokinetics?20Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerThe study of what a drug does to the body.What is Pharmacokinetics?21Pharmacotherapeutics – ToxicologyStudy of poisonous effect or toxicity of drugs Toxic effects includes:Adverse effect on a fetus or infantAdverse reactions reported in clinical trialsAdverse effect in pediatric or elderly patients22Sources of Drug Information You must keep up-to-date sources of drug informationPhysicians’ Desk Reference (PDR)Drug EvaluationsUnited States Pharmacopeial/National FormularyAmerican Hospital Formulary Services (AHFS)23Controlled SubstancesA drug that is categorized as potentially dangerous and addictiveThe greater the potential the more severe limitations on prescribing itControlled by federal lawsComprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act – (Controlled Substances Act) 197024Controlled Substances - SchedulesScheduleAbuseExampleIHighHeroinIIHighCodeine IIILower than II Butabarbital IVLower than III Chloral hydrate VLower than IV Antidiarrheals 25Regulatory Function of FDA Drug ManufacturingNonprescription or Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugsPrescription drugsControlled substancesControlling substance labelingDoctor registration DEA number use Form 224a Renew every three years26Controlled Substances – Drug SecurityStore controlled drugs in a locked cabinet or safe.Double lock opioidsDoctor should keep the keys at all times except when asking you to add or take from the stock, only if allowed in your state27Controlled Substances – Recording KeepingDoctors must maintain two types of records to dispense controlled drugs:Dispensing records Must be kept separate from patient’s regular medical recordNote each time a drug is givenInventory records Count the amount of each drug on hand and compare with amount dispensed to patient28Controlled Substances – Disposing of DrugsDispose of outdated, noncontrolled drugs by:Flushing down the toiletPutting them in the trashDispose of controlled drugsObtain DEA Form – 41 (Registrants Inventory of Drugs Surrendered)Have doctor sign it and call DEA about how to dispose of the drugs29Writing PrescriptionsAny drug not over-the-counter requires a prescription Four basic parts:SuperscriptionInscriptionSubscriptionSignature30Writing Prescriptions (cont.)Prescription Blank for a Single Medication31Prescription Blank for a Multiple MedicationsWriting Prescriptions (cont.)32VaccinesSpecial preparations made from microorganismsAdministered to a person to produce reduced sensitivity to or increased immunity to an infectious disease33Antibody FormationAntigen enters body White cells produce antibodies Combine with antigens to neutralize them This arrests or prevents reaction or diseaseVaccines stimulate antibody formation and reduce symptoms if patient is exposed to disease34Patient Education About Over The Counter (OTC) DrugsYou need to give your attention to all the drugs a patient is taking whether prescription or OTCCaution patient not to treat themselves with OTC drugsInform patient that many OTC medications contain more than one active ingredient.Tell the patient that interactions can occur when a person takes more than one OTC at a time or takes one with prescription drugs35Patient Education About Drugs – Prescription DrugsInform patient about special considerations and drug safety precautionsEncourage:Complete medication listComplete adverse reactions listPatient compliance36Apply Your KnowledgeWhy are vaccines given to patients?37Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerVaccines are administered to a person to produce reduced sensitivity to or increased immunity to an infectious disease.Why are vaccines given to patients?38Summary Medical Assistant You will need to have a good working knowledge of the foundations of pharmacology. Your need to teach patients about specific drugs and required safety precautions .39End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 40
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