Bài giảng môn Medical Assisting - Chapter 19: Organization of the Body

Learning Outcomes 19.1 Describe body organization from simple to more complex levels. 19.2 List the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each. 19.3 Define the anatomical position and explain its importance. 19.4 Use medical and anatomical terminology correctly.

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19Organization of the Body19-*Learning Outcomes19.1 Describe body organization from simple to more complex levels.19.2 List the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each.19.3 Define the anatomical position and explain its importance.19.4 Use medical and anatomical terminology correctly.19-*Learning Outcomes (cont.)19.5 Name the body cavities and the organs contained in each.19.6 Explain the abdominal regions and quadrants.19.7 Explain why a basic understanding of chemistry is important in studying the body.19.8 Describe important molecules and compounds of the human body. 19-*Learning Outcomes (cont.)19.9 Label the parts of a cell and list their functions.19.10 List and describe the ways substances move across a cell membrane.19.11 Describe the stages of cell division.19.12 Explain how mutations occur and what effects they may produce. 19-*Learning Outcomes (cont.)19.13 Describe the uses of the genetic techniques, DNA fingerprinting, and the polymerase chain reaction.19.14 Describe the different patterns of inheritance.19.15 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types.19.16 Describe the signs and symptoms of various genetic conditions. 19-*Introduction Human body is complex in its structure and functionThe body is organized from the chemical level all the way up to the organ system level You will also learn important terminology used in the clinical setting to describe body positions and parts.19-*Study of the BodyAnatomyStudy of body structureNormal position of body structuresPhysiology Study of function Anatomy of the body allows it to function19-*Study of the Body (cont.)Homeostasis Relative consistency of the body’s internal environmentBody conditions must remain stable19-*Apply Your KnowledgeTrue or False:___ Anatomy is the study of structure.___ Physiology is the study of function and structure.___ Homeostasis is the relative consistency of the body’s internal environment.ANSWER: TFTPhysiology is the study of function.Good!19-*Organization of the BodyLevels of OrganizationAtomMoleculeOrganelles CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemsOrganism (human)19-*Body Organs and SystemsOrganStructure formed by organization of two or more different tissue types that work together to carry out specific functionsOrgan systemOrgans join together to carry out vital functions19-*Body Organs and Systems (cont.)For exampleThe respiratory system consists of the following organs:NoseNasal cavityPharynxLarynxBronchi Lungs 19-*Apply Your Knowledge1. Match the following:___ Atoms A. The smallest living units in the body___ Matter B. Anything that takes up space and has weight___ Molecules C. Simplest unit of matter___ Organelles D. Same type of cells organized together___ Cells E. Molecules joined together___ Tissues F. Combination of two or more tissue types___ Organs G. Atoms that bond togetherANSWER:CBGEADF19-*Apply Your Knowledge2. What is the difference between organs and organ systems? 3. List two major components of the cardiovascular system.ANSWER: Organs are made of tissues working together to carry out a specific function and an organ system is formed when organs work together to carry out vital functions.The heart and blood vesselsRight!19-*Understanding Medical TerminologyWord root – contains base meaningSuffix At end of termAlters the meaning of the word rootPrefix At the beginning of the termAlters the meaning of the term19-*Understanding Medical Terminology (cont.)Combining vowel Often an “o”Added between word root and suffix when suffix begins with a consonant to ease pronunciationDoes not alter meaning19-*Anatomical TerminologyTerms used to describe the location of body parts and various body regionsAnatomical position – body is standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and palms of hands facing forwardUsed to identify the position of body structures compared to other body surfaces19-*Directional Terms19-*Directional Terms19-*Spatial Terms19-*Anatomical Terms19-*Apply Your Knowledge1. Combine terms to answer definition. heart specialist rapid heart beat specialty of the heart CARDIOLOGISTTACHYCARDIACARDIOLOGYTACHYCARDIIALOGISTOLOGYANSWER:19-*Apply Your Knowledge2. What is the anatomical position?ANSWER: Anatomical position is the body standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and palms of hands facing forward.Good Answer!19-*Body Cavities and Abdominal RegionsDorsal cavity Cranial – brainSpinal – spinal cord19-*Body Cavities and Abdominal Regions (cont.)Ventral cavityThoracic – lungs, heart, esophagus, and tracheaDiaphragm – muscle separating these two sectionsAbdominopelvicAbdominal cavity – organs of digestionPelvic cavity – bladder and internal reproductive organs 19-*Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are the two largest body cavities?ANSWER: Dorsal and ventral cavitiesYES!19-*Chemistry of Life Chemistry The study of what matter is composed of and how matter changesBody structures and functions result from chemical changes that occur within body cells or fluids19-*Chemistry of Life (cont.)Molecules Two or more atoms chemically combineBasic unit of compoundsCompounds Two or more atoms of more than one element combineWater is an example of a compound2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atomCritical to both chemical and physical processes in human physiology About 2/3 of your body weight.19-*Chemistry of Life (cont.)Metabolism – overall chemical functioning of the bodyAnabolismSmall molecules combine to form larger onesCatabolism Larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones19-*ElectrolytesSubstances that release ions when put into waterIons – positively or negatively charged particlesMovement of ions into and out of body structures regulate or trigger physiologic statesEssential forFluid balanceMuscle contractionNerve impulse conduction19-*Electrolytes (cont.)Acids and basesAcids – electrolytes that release hydrogen ionsSour taste, such as lemon juicepH less than 7 Bases – (alkalis) electrolytes that release hydroxyl ionsSlippery and taste bitter, such as detergentspH greater than 7 pH of 7 is neutral19-*BiochemistryStudy of matter and chemical reactions in the bodyOrganic matter Contains carbon and hydrogenLarge moleculesClasses of organic matterCarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic acids19-*Biochemistry (cont.)Inorganic matter Generally does not contain large complexes of hydrogen or carbonSmall molecules ExamplesWater – most abundantOxygenCarbon dioxideNaCl (sodium chloride)19-*Apply Your KnowledgeDesignate an A or a B to indicate whether the item is an acid or a base. ____ Lemon juice ____ Gastric fluid____ Sodium bicarbonate ____ Egg white____ Household ammonia ____ VinegarABBBAAANSWER:Super! 19-*Cell CharacteristicsBasic unit of lifeBody has millions of cellsThree main parts Cell membraneCytoplasmNucleus19-*Cell Characteristics (cont.)Cell membrane Outer limitThin and selectively permeableCytoplasm Inside of cellMade up of water, proteins, ions, and nutrientsOrganelles Cilia  Endoplasmic reticulum  Lysosomes Flagellum  Mitochondria  Centrioles Ribosomes  Golgi apparatus 19-*Cell Characteristics (cont.)NucleusRound structure near the centerContains chromosomesThreadlike structures made up of DNA19-*Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are the three main parts of a cell, and in which one is DNA found?ANSWER: The three main parts of a cell are: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus – this is where DNA is foundExcellent!19-*Movement Through Cell MembranesSelectively permeable membrane controls movement in and out of cellsPassive mechanisms – no energy required to move substancesActive mechanisms – require the cell to use energy to move substances19-*Movement Through Cell Membranes (cont.)Diffusion – movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentrationOsmosis – diffusion or movement of water across a semipermeable membraneFiltration –substances are forced under pressure across a membrane that acts like a filterActive Transport – substances move across the cell membrane with the help of a carrier molecule19-*Cell DivisionReproduction through cell division Mitosis, meiosis, cytokinesis (splitting the cytoplasm)Interphase Cell carries out normal function and is not dividingPrepares for cell division by duplicating its DNAMutations – errors in duplication of DNA that are passed on to daughter cells19-*Cell Division (cont.)Mitosis – follows interphaseCell enters mitosis – a part of cell division in which the nucleus dividesCell membrane constriction divides the cytoplasm of the cellStages Prophase  MetaphaseAnaphase  Telophase Replicates all 23 chromosome pairs so cells are identical19-*Cell Division (cont.)MeiosisReproductive cell divisionMust have female and male sex cellsNucleus copies all 23 chromosome pairs2 divisions  4 cells with only 1 of each chromosome pairWhen combined during fertilization, resulting cell contains 46 chromosomes19-*Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are mitosis, meiosis, and interphase?ANSWER: Mitosis is a part of cell division in which the nucleus divides.Meiosis is reproductive cell division requiring both female and male sex cells.During interphase, the cell carries out normal function and is not dividing.Bravo!19-*Genetic TechniquesDNA Primary component of genesFound in nucleus of cellsGene – a segment of DNA that determines a body trait Genetic techniques involve using or manipulating genes19-*Genetic Techniques (cont.)Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)Quick, easy method of making millions of copies of any fragment of DNAUsed in the study of genetics Necessary tool for improving human healthLeading to new kinds of genetic testing19-*Genetic Techniques (cont.)DNA fingerprintingUnique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNASame for every cell, tissue, or organ of that personReliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humansUsed inCriminal casesPaternity cases for custody and child support issues19-*Apply Your KnowledgeDesignate whether the following is related to PCR (polymerase chain reaction ) or F (DNA fingerprinting). ____ Unique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNA____ Reliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humans____ Used in the study of genetics ____ Used in criminal and paternity cases____ Necessary tool for improving human healthFFPCRPCRFANSWER:VERY GOOD!19-*HeredityThe transfer of genetic traits from parent to child46 chromosomes23 from sperm23 from ovumSex Chromosomes – the 23rd pair determine the gender of the child19-*Heredity (cont.)Homologous chromosomes (autosomes) First 22 pairs are the same size and shape Carry same genes that code a trait, but genes may be of different forms called allelesTraits are determined by multiple allelesComplex inheritance – inherited traits determined by multiple genesSex-linked traits – carried on the sex chromosomes, X and Y19-*Common Genetic Disorders Albinism – little or no pigmentation in the skinCystic fibrosis – life-threatening disease that affects the lungs and pancreasDown syndrome (Trisomy 21) – causes mental retardation and physical abnormalities Fragile X syndrome – most common inherited cause of learning disabilityHemophilia – blood disorder; lack of clotting factor19-*Common Genetic Disorders (cont.) Klinefelter’s syndrome – chromosomal abnormality that affects malesMuscular dystrophy – affects muscular and nervous systemsPhenylketonuria (PKU) – cannot synthesize the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosineTurner’s syndrome – an X chromosome is completely or partially missing19-*Apply Your KnowledgeANSWER: Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disorder that affects the lungs and pancreas.What is cystic fibrosis? Correct!19-*Major Tissue TypesEpithelial tissueCovering, lining, or glandTissue that covers the body and most organsGlandular epithelium is composed of cells that make and secrete substancesExocrine gland – secretes product into ductEndocrine gland – secretes product directly into tissue fluid or bloodLacks blood vessels, has a nerve supply, divides constantlyFunction based on location19-*Major Tissue Types (cont.)Connective tissueMost abundant Matrix separates the cellsMatter between cells of connective tissueComponents varyGenerally has a rich blood supply, except for cartilage19-*Connective TissueBloodPlasma is matrixTransports substances throughout the bodyOsseous tissue (bone)Matrix of mineral saltsMetabolically activeCartilage Matrix rigidGives shape to structures, protects ends of long bones, and forms discs between the vertebrae19-*Connective Tissue (cont.)Dense connective tissue Ligaments, tendons, and joint capsulesDermis of skinAdipose tissue Adipocytes (fat cells) store fatsStores energyInsulates body19-*Muscle TissueShortens and elongatesContracts and relaxesIncludes skeletal, smooth, and cardiac© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer19-*Major Tissue Types (cont.)Nervous tissueBrain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervesSpecializes to send impulses to neurons, muscles, and glandsNeurons – largest cells, transmit impulsesNeuroglial cells – smaller, more abundant, and act as support for neurons© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographer19-*Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are the major tissue types?ANSWER: Epithelial tissue  Connective tissue Muscle tissue  Nerve tissueImpressive!19-*In Summary19.1 The body organization levels, simplest to most complex, are chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.19.2 The body organ systems include integumentary, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems, each with their particular set of organs and vessels to function in the capacities outlined within the chapter.19.3 In anatomic position, the body is erect, facing forward with arms at the sides and palms facing forward.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.4 Knowledge and use of anatomic and medical terminology is important for medical personnel to communicate with each other in a consistent manner.19.5 The dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity, which contains the brain and spinal cavity containing the spinal cord. The ventral cavity is composed of the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and below the abdominal cavity is the pelvic cavity. The body’s organs are contained within these cavities.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.6 The abdominal area may be divided into nine regions: right and left hypochondriac, epigastric, right and left lumbar, umbilical, right and left iliac (inguinal), and hypogastric regions. The abdomen may also be divided into right and left upper quadrants and right and left lower quadrants.19.7 It is important to have a basic understanding of chemistry when studying anatomy and physiology because body structures and functions result from chemical processes that occur within body cells or fluids.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.8 Proteins and carbohydrates are examples of two important molecules that make up the human body. Water is an example of a compound that is important to the human body.19.9 The main components of a cell are as follows: Cell membrane, cilia, flagella may be present, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and centrioles. Each has its own specialized function in the life of a cell.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.10 Substances use both active and passive mechanisms to transport substances across the cell membrane. Passive mechanisms include diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Active transport uses carrier molecules.19.11 A cell at rest is said to be in interphase. Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase occur during mitosis. Reproductive cell division is known as meiosis and takes place only in the reproductive cells. 19.12 Errors in DNA duplication during cell division are known as mutations.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.13 Genetic techniques allow the identification of individuals through the unique sequences of nucleotides found within DNA. Polymerase chain reactions allow millions of copies from just a fragment of DNA. DNA fingerprinting is used in paternity testing and in identifying suspects in criminal cases.19.14 Dominant traits occur through alleles. If a dominant allele is received from a parent, the trait will appear in the child. Complex inheritance is more common and is determined by multiple genes given by both parents. Sex-linked traits are carried on the sex chromosomes.19-*In Summary (cont.)19.15 Epithelial tissues cover the body and most organs in the body. Epithelial tissue lines body cavities, hollow organs, and tubes of the body. Glandular tissue is classified as epithelial tissue. Connective tissue contains a matrix between its cells. Muscle tissue is specialized tissue that contracts and relaxes; there are three types of muscle tissue. 19.16 Various types of genetic disorders affect humans. Some of them include albinism, cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, hemophilia, muscular dystrophy and PKU.19-*Our history begins before we are born. We represent the hereditary influences of our race, and our ancestors virtually live in us. ~ James Nasmyth End of Chapter 19