Bài giảng Probability & Statistics - Lecture 2: Tables & Charts - Bùi Dương Hải

LECTURE 2 – TABLES & CHARTS  [1] Chapter 2, pp. 33 – 79  Frequency, relative frequency, cumulative table  Pie chart  Bar chart, Column chart  Histogram  Line chart, Radar chart  Scatter plot, bubble chart

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LECTURE 2 – TABLES & CHARTS  [1] Chapter 2, pp. 33 – 79  Frequency, relative frequency, cumulative table  Pie chart  Bar chart, Column chart  Histogram  Line chart, Radar chart  Scatter plot, bubble chart PROBABILITY & STATISTICS– Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 1 Raw data No. Sex (Male / Female) Age (year) Waiting time (Minute) Evaluation (VG, G, F, B) 1 Female 43 15 to 20 Bad 2 Male 23 0 to 5 Good 3 Female 36 5 to 10 Very Good 50 Female 28 10 to 15 Fair PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 2  Data from a customer survey, n = 50 observations Frequency & Relative frequency  Frequency table of Gender  Relative frequency (proportion): = () PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 3 Sex Male Female Frequency 20 30 Sex Male Female Relative frequency Proportion, percent 0.4 40% 0.6 60% Pie chart [VAL UE] [PER CE [VAL UE] [PER CE Gender Male Female PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 4 Sex Male Female Freq. 20 30 % 40% 60% Evalua tion Very Good Good Fair Bad Freq. 10 25 9 6 % 20% 50% 18% 12% [VALUE ] [PERCE NTAGE][VALUE ] [PERCE NTAGE] [VALUE ] [PERCE NTAGE] [VALUE ] [PERCE NTAGE] Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad Column chart PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 5 Evaluation Freq. % Very Good 10 20% Good 25 50% Fair 9 18% Bad 6 12% TOTAL 50 100% 10 25 9 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Very Good Good Fair Bad Evaluation Cross frequency table – Column chart PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 6 Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad Sum Male 6 11 2 1 20 Female 4 14 7 5 30 Sum 10 25 9 6 50 6 4 11 14 2 7 1 5 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 MALE FEMALE Evaluation by Gender Very Good Good Fair Bad 6 11 2 1 4 14 7 5 VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD Gender by Evaluation Male Female Contingency table – Stacked column PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 7 Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad Sum Male 6 11 2 1 20 Female 4 14 7 5 30 Sum 10 25 9 6 50 6 4 11 14 2 7 1 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 MALE FEMALE Evaluation by Gender Very Good Good Fair Bad 6 11 2 1 4 14 7 5 VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD Gender by Evaluation Male Female Cross tab: grand-percent PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 8 Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad Sum Male 12% 22% 4% 2% 40% Female 8% 28% 14% 10% 60% Sum 20% 50% 18% 12% 100% 12% 8% 22% 28% 4% 14% 2% 10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% MALE FEMALE Evaluation by Gender Very Good Good Fair Bad 12% 22% 4% 2% 8% 28% 14% 10% VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD Gender by Evaluation Male Female Cross tab: Column-percent PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 9 Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad TOTAL Male 60% 44% 22% 17% 40% Female 40% 56% 78% 83% 60% Sum 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 60% 44% 22% 17% 40% 56% 78% 83% VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR BAD Gender by Evaluation Male Female 60% 44% 22% 17% 40% 56% 78% 83% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Very Good Good Fair Bad Gender by evaluation Male Female Cross tab: Row-percent PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 10 Evaluation Very Good Good Fair Bad Sum Male 30% 55% 10% 5% 100% Female 13% 47% 23% 17% 100% GRAND 20% 50% 18% 12% 100% 30% 13% 55% 47% 10% 23% 5% 17% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% MALE FEMALE Evaluation by Gender Very Good Good Fair Bad 30% 13% 55% 47% 10% 23% 5% 17% MALE FEMALE Evaluation by Gender Very Good Good Fair Bad Scale variable: Column chart Age 23 26 28 32 35 36 38 40 43 47 50 54 58 63 Sum Freq. 1 2 2 2 4 3 5 8 7 4 5 4 2 1 50 % 2% 4% 4% 4% 8% 6% 10% 16% 14% 8% 10% 8% 4% 2% 100% PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 11 1 2 2 2 4 3 5 8 7 4 5 4 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 26 28 32 35 36 38 40 43 47 50 54 58 63 Age of customer Scale variable: Column chart Age 23 26 28 32 35 36 38 40 43 47 50 54 58 63 Sum Freq. 1 2 2 2 4 3 5 8 7 4 5 4 2 1 50 % 2% 4% 4% 4% 8% 6% 10% 16% 14% 8% 10% 8% 4% 2% 100% PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 12 1 2 2 2 4 3 5 8 7 4 5 4 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Age of customer Column chart: Grouped data Age 20 – 24 25 – 29 30 – 34 35 – 39 40 – 44 45 – 49 50 – 54 55 – 59 60 – 64 Sum Freq. 1 4 2 12 15 4 9 2 1 50 % 2% 8% 4% 24% 30% 8% 18% 4% 2% 100% PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 13 2% 8% 4% 24% 30% 8% 18% 4% 2% 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 Age of customer Column chart: Histogram Age 20 – 29 30 – 39 40 – 49 50 – 59 60 – 69 Sum Freq. 5 14 19 11 1 50 % 10% 28% 38% 22% 2% 100% PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 14 10% 28% 38% 22% 2% 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60+ Age of customer Histogram – Cumulative chart 10% 28% 38% 22% 2%10% 38% 76% 98% 100% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60+ Customer’s Age % Cumulative % PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 15 Age Freq. % Cumula tive 20-29 5 10% 10% 30-39 14 28% 38% 40-49 19 38% 76% 50-59 11 22% 98% 60+ 1 2% 100%  Also called: Ogive, Pareto chart Histogram PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 16 Waiting time Freq % Cumula tive [0 – 5) 15 30% 30% [5 – 10) 20 40% 70% [10 – 15) 8 16% 86% [15 – 20) 5 10% 96% 20+ 2 4% 100% 15 20 8 5 2 30% 70% 86% 96% 100% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 - 5 5 - 10 10 -15 15 - 20 20 + Waiting time (minute) Freq. Cummulative % Distribution shape  Symmetric and Asymmetric distribution PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 17 Symmetrical distribution (Bell shaped) Positively skewed Right skewed Negatively skewed Left skewed Asymetrical / Skewed distribution Line chart for Time series 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Sales of product A and B over time A B PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 18 Combined chart  VN Index and Volume of transaction PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 19 860 880 900 920 940 960 980 1000 1020 1040 1060 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 VIETNAM STOCK EXCHANGE Volume (VND. Bil.) VN Index Radar (Spider web) chart  Same scale variables (multi-dimension) PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 20 50 50 60 65 80 90 85 80 90 80 75 60 65 30 Knowledge Skill Learning DisciplineAttitude Harmony Loyalty Employee Evaluation Dimension Staff A B Knowledge 50 80 Skill 50 90 Learning 60 80 Discipline 65 75 Attitude 80 60 Harmony 90 65 Loyalty 85 30 Scatter plot 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 10 12 14 16 18 20 O u tp u t Labor Output – Labor relationship PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 21 Labor Output Labor Output 11 80 15 250 11 130 16 220 12 150 17 210 13 110 18 240 13 150 18 200 13 200 17 260 15 170 19 240 14 180 19 280  Using for pair sample (dependent sample) Relationship  Between two scale variable, there is PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 22 Positively Week Strong Negatively No correlated r = 0.5 r = – 0.5 r = 0.8 r = 0 Bubble chat PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 23 Project R&D Adv. Profit A 30 35 50 B 40 25 40 C 45 50 18 D 15 45 22 E 50 10 15 F 10 30 20 A, [BUBBLE SIZE] B, [BUBBLE SIZE] C, [BUBBLE SIZE]D, [BUBBLE SIZE] E, [BUBBLE SIZE] F, [BUBBLE SIZE] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 A d ve rt is in g R&D Profit vs R&D and Advertising Exercise  [1] Chapter 2  (p39) 2, 10  (p51) 12, 13, 19, 20, 21  (p60) 32  (p68) 36, 39, 42, 50 Case Problem 1 (p.84) Pelican Stores Case Problem 2 (p.85) Motion Picture Industry PROBABILITY & STATISTICS – Bui Duong Hai – NEU – www.mfe.edu.vn/buiduonghai 24