Báo chí truyền thông - Chapter 19: Social effects of mass communication

Investigating Mass Communication Effects Effects on Knowledge and Attitudes Media Effects on Behavior: A Short History The Impact of Televised Violence Encouraging Prosocial Behavior Other Behavior Effects Research about The Social Effects of the Internet Communication in the Future: Social Impact

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Social Effects of Mass Communication Chapter 19© 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER OUTLINEInvestigating Mass Communication EffectsEffects on Knowledge and AttitudesMedia Effects on Behavior: A Short HistoryThe Impact of Televised ViolenceEncouraging Prosocial BehaviorOther Behavior EffectsResearch about The Social Effects of the InternetCommunication in the Future: Social Impact 2INVESTIGATING MASS COMMUNICATION EFFECTSFocus on scientific studiesTwo methods commonSurveyPanel studyExperimentField experiment3EFFECTS ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDESThe dividing line between knowledge and attitudes is fuzzy. We will consider bothWe will examine several topics that have generated the most research interest4Media and SocializationSocialization is how individuals come to adopt behaviors and values of the groupAgencies of socialization include media5The Media as a Primary Source of InformationLearning is important part of the socialization processMedia, especially TV, are primary information sourceEspecially politics and public opinionEntertainment media also provide informationAbout diverse topics such as occupations, crime, relationships, minorities, morals, etc6Shaping Attitudes, Perceptions, and BeliefsMedia can play important role in transmitting attitudes, perceptions, beliefsEspecially in young people who are heavy viewers of TV, when stereotypes consistently recur, and when they have limited exposure to alternative beliefs or other socializing agentsCreating stereotypesEffects of heavy viewingAbsence of alternative information 7Cultivation AnalysisHeavy TV viewing cultivates perceptions of reality consistent with the view of the world presented on TV. MethodologyResearch findingsMainstreamingResonance Criticisms of cultivation analysisDetermining cause and effectFactors other than TV may affect peopleWording of questions on surveys8Children and Television AdvertisingGiven extent of children’s exposure to advertising, most people accept that children deserve special consideration from advertisers, due to:Vulnerability of the audienceEffects of special selling techniquesConsumer socialization9Agenda SettingWhen the media emphasize certain topics, we begin to think these topics are importantMost agenda-setting studies examine information-based media, especially political campaigns and issuesAgenda-setting research has led toFraming researchAgenda-building research10MEDIA EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR: A SHORT HISTORY1940s research was prompted by concern about political effects of mass media, especially radio1950s-1960s: Growth of TV shifted concern to affects on young people1970s-1980s-1990s: Concern about affects of violent content2007: FCC urged Congress to allow the agency to regulate violent content11THE IMPACT OF TELEVISED VIOLENCEThe impact of televised violence is a complex issue, and the definitive answer has not yet been found12Survey ResultsDecades of surveys reveal a significant correlation between viewing violent TV and aggressive behavior in real lifeCorrelation does not prove causalityPanel studies have provided stronger evidence that there is a mutual causal connection between watching TV violence and performing aggressive actsConnection is small and influenced by individual and cultural factors13Experimental Results: The Catharsis Versus Stimulation DebateTwo rival theories on impact of media violenceCatharsisStimulation Experiments support stimulation, not catharsis14Bandura’s ExperimentAlbert Bandura, 1960sExperiments with Bobo dollFound that film and TV might teach aggressive behavior to children15Complicating FactorsMany factors can influence the outcomes of experiments into the effects of violent content, including:Experimental settingParticipate age, gender, social class, family history, economic background, etcLength and type of content viewedReactions of others to the same content16Field ExperimentsField experiments are more naturalisticPeople react more naturallyHarder to control for other outside influencesField experiment results vary but tend to support the notion that viewing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior17What Can We ConcludeA consistent thread appearsTentative acceptance that watching violence on television increases aggression in at least some viewersEffects are weak or small, but are not necessarily trivial18ENCOURAGING PROSOCIAL BEHAVIORMost media research has studied potential negative effects of mediaResearch on prosocial behavior studies potential positive effects, includingCooperation, sharing, self control, helping19ExperimentsLab experiments have shown that film and TV content can affect young children’s self control, cooperation, sharing, and helping20SurveysSurvey data measure what TV programs children watch, and how often they perform prosocial actsA wide variety of prosocial behaviors have been examined21Research ResultsResearch in this area is hard to interpretProsocial behavior covers many areasExperiments indicate moderate short-term impact of exposure to prosocial behaviorSurveys reveal moderate impact of voluntary exposure to prosocial programsPositive impact about as strong as that of the negative impact from exposure to violenceAltruism is most strongly-affected prosocial behavior22OTHER BEHAVIOR EFFECTSResearchers have also studied other potential effects of media exposure23Political BehaviorNegative advertisingEffects of mass media on voter choiceConversionReinforcementCrystallizationEffects of televised debatesTelevision and the political behavior of politicians24RESEARCH ABOUT THE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF THE INTERNETTwo trends in Internet studiesImpact of Internet use on other mediaGreatest effect on TV usageInternet important as source of newsRelationship between Internet use and social involvementContradictory results don’t yet support conclusions25COMMUNICATION IN THE FUTURE: SOCIAL IMPACTAdvances in media technology usually have an upside and a downside26PrivacyThe widespread exchange of information has had both positive and negative consequencesPersonal information is uncomfortably easy to find27Fragmentation and IsolationMass media serve needs of ever more specialized audiencesDirecting people to ever more selective content exposureCould result in smaller and smaller interest groupsThe cocoon effect28EscapePeople could always immerse themselves in world of mass media, and tune out of the real worldNew technologies have caused those fears to resurfaceHDTV, the Internet, virtual reality, role-playing games29