Báo chí truyền thông - Chapter 4: Newspapers

History Newspapers in the Digital Age Defining Features of Newspapers Organization of the Newspaper Industry Newspaper Ownership Producing the Print and Online Newspaper Economics Feedback

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Newspapers Chapter 4 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER OUTLINEHistoryNewspapers in the Digital AgeDefining Features of NewspapersOrganization of the Newspaper IndustryNewspaper OwnershipProducing the Print and Online NewspaperEconomicsFeedback2 HISTORYNewspapers have had a long history in the US3Journalism in Early AmericaGeneral features of colonial newspapersFew newspapers existedPublishers were printers and postmastersNews was not very timely“Free press” concept not supportedNoteworthy colonial newspapersPublick Occurrences both Foreign and DomestickBoston News LetterNew England CourantPennsylvania Gazette4The Beginnings of RevolutionTension between Colonies and BritainTruth as libel defense (John Peter Zenger trial)Political or Partisan press Newspapers openly support party, faction, causeHeld role in Revolutionary War5The Political Press: 1790-1833First Amendment, 1971, guarantees press freedomPapers grew rapidly, read mostly by wealthyAnne Royall: first important female political journalistFreedom’s Journal: first Black newspaperCherokee Phoenix and Cherokee Advocate: written in Cherokee and English6Birth of the Mass NewspaperPrerequisites for mass press Fast, cost-effective printing pressesCritical mass of literate peopleMass audience7The Penny PressIn contrast, other newspapers cost 6 centsExamplesNew York Sun, New York HeraldNew York Tribune, New York TimesThe Penny Press changedBasis of newspaper economic support Distribution patternDefinition of newsHow news was collected 8Newspapers Become Big BusinessCivil War and development of telegraph changed how stories were writtenLeadInverted pyramidHuge growth in US population, and newspaper readershipKey players in the newspaper industryJoseph PulitzerE.W. ScrippsWilliam Randolph Hearst9Yellow JournalismYellow journalism: increased use of sex, murder, self-promotion, and human interest storiesPositive impactEnthusiasm and energyProfessional writingAggressive reporting and investigative journalismLayout and display elements that characterize modern journalism10The Early Twentieth CenturyConsolidation of the newspaper industryCirculation and profits increased, but number of daily papers declined due toEquipment and supply costsAdvertiser preference for big chain newspapersGrowth of chain newspapersJazz journalismTabloid size, lavish use of photographs11The Impact of the Great DepressionSocial and economic impact on newspapersMany dailies went out of businessRadio emerged as competitor for advertising dollars12Postwar NewspapersAfter World War II, economic forces affected the newspaper industryMore consolidationGrowth of chain newspapersFew cities with competing newspapersMedia conglomerates control print and electronic mediaTelevision emerged as competitor for advertising dollars13Contemporary Developments1980s: USA Today influenced Graphics and colorsShort storiesGraphs, charts, tablesFactoidsDecreasing circulationCompetition from web and new mediaShifts in social and market conditions14NEWSPAPERS IN THE DIGITAL AGEThe newspaper industry is still experimenting with how best to incorporate an online presence15Online NewspapersVary in size and complexityAdvantages over print newspapersNot limited by news hole sizeCan be updated continuouslyInteractiveProvide visual and audio contentCan offer social networkingCan feature user-generated content16Replica EditionsNot the same as online editionsLook the same as traditional editions, with same contentRead on a computer screenAdvantages and disadvantages17Mobile MediaNewspapers can be delivered to a person rather than a placeCell phones, PDAs, laptopsAdvertising and marketing potential significant18User-Generated ContentCitizen reportersWorkshops teaching readers about reportingCitizen journalists may not be objective or knowledgeable19DEFINING FEATURES OF NEWSPAPERSDiverse array of contentConveniently packagedLocalHistorical recordWatchdog roleTimely20ORGANIZATION OF THE NEWSPAPER INDUSTRYThere are various ways to categorize the newspaper industry, including by their publication frequency and their appeal21Print DailiesCirculation decline continuesCirculation = subscription + vending/newsstand salesCategories of newspapersNational newspapersLarge metropolitan dailiesMedium-sized dailiesSmall-town dailies22Print WeekliesNumber of weeklies has remained stableCirculation totals have increasedRising production costs23Recapturing ReadersEye appealWriting styleStory contentGiving free tabloids to younger readers24Special-Service and Minority NewspapersAfrican-American pressSpanish pressVaried ethnic newspapersCollege press25Organization of Online PapersPaid accessRegistration accessFree access26NEWSPAPER OWNERSHIPConsolidation is increasing.The biggest newspaper group owners are the Gannett Company, the Tribune Company, the New York Times Company, McClatchy Company, and Advance Publications27The Decline of CompetitionIncreasing concentration of ownershipDecreasing number of cities with competing papersJoint-operating agreements (JOAs) allow competing papers to merge all departments except editorial staffsRequires approval of Justice Department28The Pros and Cons of Group OwnershipConsLess diversity of opinionAbsentee ownershipLess local concernProfit motiveAvoid controversyProsMore resources support more staff and facilitiesCan do more public service29PRODUCING THE PRINT AND ONLINE NEWSPAPERConvergence has appeared in print and online newspapers30Departments and StaffDepartmentsBusinessProductionNews-EditorialOperational ConvergenceStaffCity editorWire editor31Prepublication RoutineSources of newsLocal reportingWire servicesNews holePrint papers are laid out and printedOnline newspapersNews hole not applicableDeadlines and limits on graphics not applicableConvergence: reporters prepare stories for online and print32ECONOMICSBusiness model is changingTwo main revenue sourcesAdvertisingCirculationCost-cuttingOnline readership up33Advertising RevenuePrint versions of newspapersLocal advertisingClassified advertisingPreprinted insertsNational advertisingOnline versions of newspapersBanner advertisingDisplay advertisingClassified advertising34Circulation RevenueSubscription and single-copy salesDistributors receive some of the cover pricePrice of newspapers may hurt circulationOnline newspapers can charge subscription feesOnline newspapers can charge for access to back issues35General ExpensesNews and editorial costsGenerating advertising salesMechanical costsPrinting costsCirculation/distribution costsGeneral administrationOnline papersMinimal production/distribution costsSoftware, hardware, server costs36FEEDBACKCirculation figures are very important to the newspaper industry37The Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC)ABC audits about ¾ of all US and Canadian print mediaNielsen/NetRatings report on online audience size38Newspaper AudiencesUS total newspaper circulation: about 53 million copies dailyDeclining since 1970 despite population growthEspecially 18-44, urban, lower educationReasons for decline includeincreased mobilityincreased pricesdecreased literacycompetition from other media39