Competence development teaching in vocational education based on constructivism learning theory approach in Vietnam

Abstract. The article analyzes the theoretical basis of competence development teaching in vocational education based on theoretical constructivism learning theory approaches. Constructivist theory is analyzed to explain the mechanism of the formation and development of cognitive abilities and action capacity in vocational training. These two capabilities are not separated, stemming from the reflection of objective reality and the processing of information through conceptual receptivity and the process of skill formation. To develop professional competence for learners, the instructor needs to understand the mechanism of formation and implement flexible and creative in teaching method both theory and practice.

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70 HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE DOI: 10.18173/2354-1075.2018-00170 Educational Sciences, 2018, Volume 63, Issue 9, pp. 70-77 This paper is available online at COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT TEACHING IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION BASED ON CONSTRUCTIVISM LEARNING THEORY APPROACH IN VIETNAM Nguyen Thanh Thuy Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education Abstract. The article analyzes the theoretical basis of competence development teaching in vocational education based on theoretical constructivism learning theory approaches. Constructivist theory is analyzed to explain the mechanism of the formation and development of cognitive abilities and action capacity in vocational training. These two capabilities are not separated, stemming from the reflection of objective reality and the processing of information through conceptual receptivity and the process of skill formation. To develop professional competence for learners, the instructor needs to understand the mechanism of formation and implement flexible and creative in teaching method both theory and practice. Keywords: Competence development, constructivism theory, vocational education. 1. Introduction Vocational training in Vietnam is looking for a suitable development direction to improve the quality of training to meet the demand of human resources of the economy. In the comprehensive reform of the national education system, vocational training is directed towards fundamental and comprehensive renewal in which emphasis is placed on innovations in terms of objectives, methods and means of organizing training and building activities. Develop a process of teaching oriented capacity development. At the resolution 29th TWVIII conference, XI / 2011 on basic education and training reform, stated: "Continue to renovate teaching and learning methods in the direction of modernity, promote initiative, active and creative, and apply the knowledge of the learners' skills. Overcoming one-way communication, remembering machines, focusing on learning how to think, encouraging self-learning, creating a basis for learners to update themselves and renew knowledge, skills, capacity development. The resolution also states that “...the creation of capacity is centered, the goal of training instead of the transfer of knowledge”. In vocational training, the development of cognitive abilities and capacity for action is a prerequisite to ensure the quality of the output of the training process. Constructivist Received January 16, 2018. Revised August 2, 2018. Accepted September 5, 2018. Contact Nguyen Thanh Thuy, e-mail address: thuynt@hcmute.edu.vn Competence development teaching in vocational education based on constructivism learning 71 teaching is an active teaching method built on the basis of constructivist theory. Appropriate and effective application of this method in vocational training is necessary because it is aimed at developing the competence of the subject. Therefore, this article focuses on analyzing the theoretical basis of capacity development teaching based on constructivist learning theory approach in vovational education in Vietnam. 2. Content 2.1. Constructivism theory and constructivist teaching method 2.1.1. Constructivism theory Constructivist teaching theory is built by representatives such as Jean Piaget, Watzlawich, Hans Aebli, Maria Motessori and Lew S. Vygotzky, with the view "Learning is self-knowledge, Constructivists is to place the cognitive subject in the top of the cognitive process ... Each learner is an active process of self-reflection, reflecting the world in his own experience " (Bernd Meier, 2016). In Constructivist theory there are three basic components, including: schema; process of assimilation and adaptation. Figure 1: Basic compositions of constructivism theory Schemes created during the process of access to objective in reality, with old knowledge and experience, the subject forms a "diagram" attached to the image of objective reality under form an icon. A "map" can be defined as a combination of the mental manifestations of the world we use to understand and respond to situations. Accordingly, we keep mental expressions and apply them when necessary. It's like a script that is stored in similar situations, people will follow that scenario. It's like a schema to deal with an object or a familiar situation. Cognitive schema is the experience that the subject accumulates in each stage. It is a class of similar operations in a certain order, a consistent unity of constituent elements that are interrelated. The diagram is a key concept in this theory and demonstrates the nature of intellectual manipulation. Intelligence is intrinsically manipulative and is made up of schematics (Ngo, 2003). But human mind is a process of adaptation, adjustment to the world, so when new situations or new objects appear learner needs to change the schema. Thus the plan of objective reality in human experience will be more and more rich and closer to each type of concept that people receive. This is the process of Nguyen Thanh Thuy 72 adjusting, adjusting the map to adapt to the environment. Learner leaassimilates them, making them individual in human perception. Homogenization is "making the new knowledge system digestible, integrating with the old knowledge system." The process of forming a new map never stops because people are constantly learning and discovering new things. When dealing with new situations, people will achieve equilibrium. Balance is the driving force of human learning. This is an important process for people in the process of acquiring knowledge and engaging in different types of activities in life. Piaget said that: "Life is a constant creation of increasingly complex psychological forms, a growing balance." The balance mechanism is created by manipulations, the highest of which is intellectual manipulation with its diversity. Actions to perform assimilation and adaptation. Assimilation is the process by which the subject receives the object and man processes the external effect to achieve a certain goal. The adaptation is the subject that gives the structure of the activity that was created earlier according to the object. Piaget argues that by cognitive experience it is possible to handle problems, the effects on one's own well-being as well as on the family, community and humanity. Having knowledge of objects, they can adjust their knowledge, skills and attitudes to work, learn and play in order to achieve certain effects in their work. But this balance is not fixed, it is dynamic balance. Ideas are the highest product of the development of manipulation. These values form the whole and are the purpose of cognitive activity. These values create the desire for passion, excitement at different levels, the beginning of an imbalance, then the manipulation, the human assimilation and response to the effects. From the environment, the situation creates a real balance and leads to an ideal balance. Action is an activity that is moved in and is trimmed in it. Action has three basic characteristics: 1 / Reversible nature; 2 / Conservation properties; (3) Coherence. Reversibility is manifested in reversibility and reversibility. Reversibility is the first sign of the distinction between inner mental activity and physical activity. Action is the effect of the subject on the object, manipulation is the external activity is transferred inside. Conservation is the immutability of things in the transformation of activities, creating the schema of things. Under different circumstances, things may change in terms of external attributes, but the subject can still be perceived through the already formed diagram. Linking is the combination of operations into an action diagram to perform an operation. There are two types of operations: 1 / Specific operations; 2 / Manipulating the form. Specific manipulation is the manipulation carried out on specific physical or material materials. This physical activity is carried out by internal manipulation diagrams, which means that there is an assimilation into the existing operational map. Formal manipulation is carried out on the material as a clause. This is the highest form of manipulation. Create the ability to reason and express the cognitive results by propositions. "Thinking is the manipulation of the proposition." It should be noted that: "In order to grasp the mechanism of action formation, it is important to understand what is required to create more, what is lacking in the mind-movement to shape thinking concept" (Ngo, 2003). Thus, the theory of constructivist concentration explains the mechanism of human cognition and action. Human behavior, whether internal or external, is interrelated and Competence development teaching in vocational education based on constructivism learning 73 reflects a certain level of thinking. Physical action outside is the raw material to create inner intelligence, the inner wisdom that continues to manipulate external physical action to help human form skills. The ability to perform human actions is the source of competence. Human capacity is formed in the process of human perception of the objective world, participating in various activities in life. It is in these activities that human needs arise and the need to work at a higher and higher level, balance in the cognitive mechanism is constantly broken and set new, enriched tri human experience and experience. Cognitive ability and capacity to act are closely interrelated, inseparable. Depending on the specific field of activity, the subject can develop two different capacities. 2.2. Teaching methods based on constructivism approach Constructivist teaching method is the interaction between the basic elements: the teacher, the learner and the content. The core of the activity is the learner's experience taking place in a positive learning environment. In these three components, learners play the role of creating knowledge and skills under the control and guidance of the teacher. Constructivist teaching focuses on addressing how the learner builds his or her own conceptualization through thought processes so that, on the basis of that understanding, skills and attitudes are formed. the response. The close relationship between knowledge, skills and attitudes reflects the learner's ability. The result of Constructivist teaching is to help develop the learner's capacity, so teachers should teach theories and practice closely with the Constructivist perspective, especially the project-based teaching Project based learning is a teaching method in which self-reliant learners perform a complex learning task that combines theory and practice, creates a product of gender Introduction (Bernd Meier, 2016). By teaching project-based learning, learners develop their theoretical and practical competences, the basis for future professional competence. It can be said that the teaching approach to constructive theology focuses on student learning and through experience, learners build their knowledge and skills under the guidance of teachers. Thus the role of the teacher is the instructor and trainer rather than the knowledge transferor. Paul Adams (2006) recomended the rules of this method includes: (1) Focus on learning not performance; (2) View learners as active co-constructors of meaning and knowledge; (3) Establish a teacher–pupil relationship built upon the idea of guidance not instruction; (4) Seek to engage learners in tasks seen as ends in themselves and consequently as having implicit worth; (5) Promote assessment as an active process of uncovering and acknowledging shared understanding. Arcooding to Alex Koohang et.al (2009): “Honebein (1996) advanced a set of goals that aid the design of contructivism in learning setting are provide experience with the knowledge construction process and embed learning in realistic and relevant context”. To achieve these goals, Kanokrat Jirasatjanukul and Namon Jeerungsuwan (2018) emphesize that learner intergrated and connected their existing knowledge with new information. They created knowlege through communication and practice. Nguyen Thanh Thuy 74 To make the teaching methods more effectively in class, Farshad Badie (2018) claims that constructivism learning system should be focus on knowledge building over learner ‘s background knowlwdge and through the lens of contructivism the concept of “learning” is seen as the process of construction over personal backgound knowledge. These points were dicussed since 2012 by James. M. Applefield et.al revealed the teacher must also select multiple ways of representing key ideas in the lesson, from that learners should be challenged by ideas and experiences that generate inner cognitive conflict. 2.3. Capacity development in vocational training through constructivism approach teaching Competency is a concept derived from the Latin "Competenia" which is understood as the ability to perform an individual's job, which is a combination of three components: knowledge, skills and attitudes. Individually exposed in the process of resolving situations in practice. Capacity is a concept associated with the ability to perform, the action of the individual, so finding the source of the formation of capacity in the close relationship between cognitive ability and action capacity is essential. to provide specific suggestions during the training process. According to Hoang (2016), capacity is "the ability to master the knowledge system, skills, attitudes... and operate them reasonably, successfully completing the task of learning, effectively addressing the problems they face, for their lives (Hoang, 2016). Weiner (2001) states that "Capacity is the inherent or learned ability of individuals to learn and solve problems, as well as the availability of motivation, willpower, and consciousness. the ability to manipulate problems in successfully and responsibly changed situations. The ability to solve diverse situations in an individual's life is manifested in two aspects: Awareness and action, in which awareness is always the driving force of action, the quality of action close relationship with the quality of awareness. Capacity orientation is a viewpoint in assessing the process and quality of a particular activity in terms of performance capacity and measuring that capacity with specific, reliable tools. Capacity development is the development of a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes. In order to create a unified development of these three elements, the training program must ensure the following: Integrity, objectivity, objectivity, and effectiveness. Capacity development is the development of a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes. In order to create a unified development of these three elements, the training program must ensure the following: Integrity, objectivity, objectivity, and effectiveness. In vocational training, capacity-driven teaching is an indispensable trend because "Capacity development in vocational training is to increase the skills and knowledge for members in an organization to develop personal qualities. and their capacity (Trinh, 2014). According to Trinh "The reason for developing professional capacity is to meet the demands of lifelong learning ..., deriving from the moral and aspirations to maintain and develop the professional skills of learners". It can be said that professional competence is an important part of an adult's personality as it demonstrates the ability of a citizen to participate in a career. Competence development teaching in vocational education based on constructivism learning 75 Professional capacity is best demonstrated in the combination of cognitive abilities and ability to act in the professional field of each person. Cognitive abilities include abilities related to thinking such as analysis, synthesis, criticism, logic, problem solving... The capacity for action relates to the formation of specific occupational skills. according to each group of occupations. In vocational training, the formation of occupational skills requires the training process to integrate theoretical and practical instruction and to develop the cognitive and behavioral capacity for learners. In order to obtain specific actions in a professional action, the learner must be familiar with the prior formal theoretical operations and the specific operation is the beginning of the next formal operation. Along with the training, the professional skills of the learners become mature, the chain of operations is constantly being developed. Thus, in order to form a professional capacity for the learner, the instructor should understand the mechanism for the formation of professional competence, the source of the understanding of the concepts and the way of carrying out a specific professional activity. Constructivist theory explains the mechanism in a positive way, considering the subject of activity as the center of teaching activity. In constructivist teaching, the role of learner-learner is a central, important, and honest reflection of the quality of comprehension as well as the formation of professional operations. Constructivists focuses on "organizing the interaction between learners and learners, to help learners build new information into their own thinking structures that have been regulated by the subject." When organizing the teaching process, teachers need to make students Nguyen Thanh Thuy 76 express their views on the problem of learning. It is necessary to organize students to systematize and exploit old experiences in order to develop students” (Dao, 2016). Teaching methods in vocational training are mainly taught in the theory and practice in various organizational forms. The purpose of this approach is to develop a professional capacity for the learner to form cognitive skills and practical skills. The way to shape the career capacity for students through teaching approach to Constructivist theory is concretized in Figure 2. 3. Conclusions The flexible and creative application of teaching methods in the context of Constructivist theory in vocational training will create the development of professional competence in both professional knowledge and practical skills. Constructivist theory is of great importance and is a suggestion for faculty to actively promote theoretical as well as practical lessons. Vocational training is a field that requires a smooth integration between theory and practice in which practice reflects the workmanship of the trainee. To practice effectively, students must be equipped with prior professional knowledge. The path that creates knowledge and takes knowledge as the basis for crafting is the most sustainable path for the subject in apprenticeship. Teaching to develop professional capacity for learners in vocational training is a goal and an important task in creating high quality human resources for the society. Therefore, a deep understanding of the mechanism of the formation The ability of the learner in Constructivist theory will help the teacher select the method and form of teaching effective and suitable for the object. REFERENCES [1] Alex Koohang et.al, 2009. E - Learning And Constructivism From Theory To Application, Interdiciplinary Journal Of E - Learning And Learning Objects, Vol 5. [2] Bernd Meier - Nguyen Van Cuong, 2016. Theory of Modern Teaching, Publisher of Pedagogical University, pp. 31
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