Domestic violence and education on domestic violence prevention and control for secondary school students

Abstract. Domestic violence has been a serious problem in Vietnamese society, causing serious consequences for society, seriously violating human rights. Children, who are restricted in self-defense, physically and mentally vulnerable are one of the most severely affected subjects. Therefore, the prevention and control of domestic violence are very important activities in protecting human rights in general and in protecting children in particular. In doing so, the first thing is to change children’s perceptions of domestic violence and to protect themselves against domestic violence. This action must start from education of their family and society which is more important and needed than the education from the school. Education against domestic violence in the secondary education program is an activity aimed at equipping basic knowledge on human rights, prevention and control of domestic violence for children through forms, content and age-appropriate training methodologies in order to create the necessary skills on respect, protection and purposes of human rights. However, this activity in schools is primarily primitive; not really appreciating the value of human rights in social life. Accordingly, the article provides some recommendations to improve the efficiency and reality of this activity.

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22 HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Educational Sciences, 2020, Volume 64, Issue 4B, pp. 22-30 This paper is available online at DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND EDUCATION ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE PREVENTION AND CONTROL FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS Pham Ngoc Trang1 and Dang Thi Quyen2 1 Faculty of Politic Theory and Civic Education, Hanoi National University of Education 2Vietnam Inland Waterways Administration Abstract. Domestic violence has been a serious problem in Vietnamese society, causing serious consequences for society, seriously violating human rights. Children, who are restricted in self-defense, physically and mentally vulnerable are one of the most severely affected subjects. Therefore, the prevention and control of domestic violence are very important activities in protecting human rights in general and in protecting children in particular. In doing so, the first thing is to change children’s perceptions of domestic violence and to protect themselves against domestic violence. This action must start from education of their family and society which is more important and needed than the education from the school. Education against domestic violence in the secondary education program is an activity aimed at equipping basic knowledge on human rights, prevention and control of domestic violence for children through forms, content and age-appropriate training methodologies in order to create the necessary skills on respect, protection and purposes of human rights. However, this activity in schools is primarily primitive; not really appreciating the value of human rights in social life. Accordingly, the article provides some recommendations to improve the efficiency and reality of this activity. Keywords: Domestic violence, Human rights, Prevention of and Control of Domestic violence, Education about prevention of domestic violence, Protect children. 1. Introduction Domestic violence has been causing serious consequences such as violating human rights, harming individuals’ health, self – esteem, honor, dignity and life, threatening families’ security and quality of life, causing social pain. In Vietnam, the Government has recently paid much attention to the prevention and control of domestic violence and issued many direct and indirect laws such as the Constitution, the Law on Marriage and Family Law, Law on Protection, Care and Education of Children, Civil Code, Law on Prevention and Control of Domestic Violence. However, the reality of the law on prevention and control of domestic violence is still limited. The family force remains complicated in many sophisticated forms affecting the family and inadequate and ineffective enforcement of domestic violence laws. According to the statistics of the Family Department, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, among the detected domestic violence cases, more than 74% victims are female and around 11% of children. In particular, about 58% married women said that their lives have undergone at least one of three types of violence: physical, sexual, emotional. According to the Received April 11, 2020. Revised April 24, 2020. Accepted May 15, 2020. Contact Pham Ngoc Trang, e-mail address: trng90@gmail.com Domestic violence and education on domestic violence prevention and control for secondary school students 23 survey by the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, the proportion of mental violence is 47.2%, physical violence is 7.3%, and sexual violence is 4.2%, economic violence is 1.8%. The violence towards senior citizens has tended upwards over recent years with the most common forms of violence such as rudeness, insults, humiliation. For children, the main cause often originates from the conflicts between parents and their children, such as children’s disobedience, mischief, or their fighting against the rules set by adults [1]. There are many new heart-breaking cases appearing on a daily newspaper about domestic violence. Domestic violence in Viet Nam appears in many forms, regardless of the difference in age, gender, class, religion or ethnicity. Domestic violence has become the primary cause of harms towards the mental health and the affection of women, children and the elderly, and has been a gross violation of human rights. Therefore, propaganda and education to raise awareness in each family, especially the coordination between schools and residential areas where children live, will create a significant effect on reducing risks and consequences caused by domestic violence, supporting and protecting children - those who are adversely affected by domestic violence.So far, many Vietnamese and foreign studies have mentioned domestic violence and prevention of domestic violence against children. They include: Do Hong Ha, Le Thi Mai Hoa, Phan Minh Chieu (2017), Questions and answers about domestic violence and child abuse prevention, Labor Publishing House [2]; Nguyen Thi Kim Phung (2009), Overview of violence and violence law against women and children, Journal of Law [3]; Nguyen Dinh Tho (2011), Understanding and implementing laws against domestic violence, Publishing House Justice, Hanoi [4]. These studies rarely address issues of domestic violence prevention through education. There is no scientific research about “Domestic violence and education on domestic violence prevention and control for children in school”. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a perspective on domestic violence prevention and control through educational activities for children at the secondary level. 2. Content Domestic violence is one of the major issues that need to be addressed in order to ensure comprehensive enforcement of human rights. So far, depending on each aspects of research, there have been many different views as well as other understandings about domestic violence. From a gender perspective: according to the United Nations Population Fund, gender-based violence is the violence between men and women, of which women are victims. This type of violence originates from the inequality between their relationships. Violence is usually directed against women, or it affects mainly women. Gender-based violence consists of physical, psychological and sexual injuries (including the threat of pain suffering, coercion or deprivation of liberty that occurs in the family or in the community) but it is not restricted in these forms [5]. In the spirit of the 2006 Gender Equality Law, domestic violence is also known as “gender discrimination, that is the restriction, exclusion, non-recognition or disregard of the roles and positions of men and women, inducing inequality between men and women in the fields of social and family life” [6]. In short, domestic violence is the behavior of family members interdependent with each other on the basis of gender, expressed in certain forms, capable of causing or threatening to cause certain physical, mental, economic deprivation or restricting the liberty of other members. From a social perspective: the majority of people do not have a thorough and accurate understanding of domestic violence. Most people think that only acts of beating and injuring, which drives victims to injury or death will be considered domestic violence. Accordingly, domestic violence is the act of using force or threatening to force against another person who have a relationship in marriage, bloodline or relationship, causing or threatening physical, mental and economical harms to those people. This way of understanding only shows small perspective at an Pham Ngoc Trang and Dang Thi Quyen 24 angle of domestic violence as there is direct damage to the health and life of the victims. Actions of mental and economic violence have not been properly assessed. From a legal perspective: according to Clause 2, Article 1 of the Law on Domestic Violence Prevention and Control 2007: “Domestic violence is an intentional act of family members to harm or possibly harm physically, mentally and economically to other family members”. Thus, the concept of domestic violence is closely related to family members because domestic violence is an act that only occurs among people who are members of the same family. They are: wife, husband; natural parents, adoptive parents, stepfather, stepmother, parents-in-law; natural children, adopted children, step children of spouse, daughter-in-law and son-in-law; brothers, sisters of the same parents or brothers, sisters of different parents , brothers-in-law, , sisters-in- law of the same parents or with different parents, with different mothers; paternal grandparents, maternal grandparents; grandchildren; aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews [7]. Although there are many views on domestic violence, they agree on the same point that domestic violence is the use of power to solve family problems. Domestic violence must be an intentional act between family members, resulting in harm or potentially causing physical, mental and economic damage to other family members. Behaviors of domestic violence can be expressed in the form of actions such as: abuse, mistreatment, beatings or non-actions. The object of domestic violence can be anyone, including men, but it is often a weak, vulnerable member and in most cases women, the elderly and children. Especially for children, violence seriously affects their formation of personalities, restricts their opportunities to have a normal life and their future. 2.2. Forms and effects of domestic violence on children Referring to victims of violence in general and domestic violence in particular, children are always the top concerns because their “special” dependence on their mother as well as their ability to protect themselves is relatively restrictive and children are the weakest and most vulnerable group in the family. Their pain and disadvantage affect not only their present but also their future, development and even negatively shapes their personality. According to statistics of the Department of Family, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, in the period 2011-2015, there are approximately 64 women, 10 children and 7 elderly people who are the victims of domestic violence each day in Vietnam. Of the total of 157,859 cases of domestic violence has been detected during this time, in which female victims (aged 16- 59) accounted for 117,206 cases (74.24%), 17,586 cases were children (11.14%). and 14,017 cases were elderly people (8.91%) [8]. Violence in the family is due to the violent behavior of some members against other members, but with the attitude of “Compassion for the whip”, coming from the love of grandparents and parents. They still consider beating their children properly (hitting “safe” positions such as buttocks, legs, arms) as their right, to “educate” them when they are disobedient, to want them better. However, in fact, we have witnessed many cases of children being beaten anywhere, with whatever weapons they have in their hands, despite not taking their lives. Those actions will cause children to be disabled. Strikes, angry gazes will be deeply rooted in the mental and emotional life of children and hurt the relationship between children and their parents. In other cases, desperate parents want to commit suicide and they also tried to force their children to die. For example, a recent incident in Tuyen Quang province as the husband as well as the father, because of the incompatibility between him and his wife in comparison with Mr. N 's jealousy, forced his two children to hang themselves. In this situation, young children do not have a little self-defense ability, and yet they have to pay dearly for the problems of the adult. Thus, domestic violence not only threatens children’s lives, physical and psychological development, but also their survival [9]. Domestic violence and education on domestic violence prevention and control for secondary school students 25 Human personality is formed during the progress their body develops and completes. When children live in a peaceful family, they will develop well, physically and mentally. On the contrary, as living in a violent environment, children cannot avoid being exposed to, acquainted with and infected with the bad lifestyle. Children are like blank pages where when adults draw good things, they will become healthy green sprouts, when adults draw bad things, dirty words, they will become barren saplings. Everything that happens in children’s childhood, we think it will go by quickly but it leaves an indelible mark on their mind. When they grow up, these things are easy to repeat. People who have been abused when they were little, they easily repeats violence against the next generation. Thus, to some extent, violence can create a myriad of generations of victims. Approaching to the media, we know the stories about the lives of many children who have been scolded by adults, brutally abused, which makes them become dull, lack of education, or fear, lack of confidence. The children cannot stand the forms of domestic violence but as leaving the family they gradually become quiet, shy, and alienated from everyone and filled with self- conscious. Domestic violence not only causes serious injuries but also adversely affects the morale of children, causing them to be depressed and even suffer from neurological diseases [10]. In general, this is a consequence of psychological trauma caused by domestic violence, children with psychological trauma are more evasive, passive, and passive behaviors with family relationships than usual. This result is worrisome because even when living in a family, children do not feel the love and care of their parents or are constantly tormented by the witness of dissonance and incomplete circumstances. This will leave a lot of consequences for the young psychological development [11]. More dangerous, the life away from the family of children born and raised from domestic violence makes them more vulnerable to social evils. The existences of depraved cultural products such as violence, drugs, prostitution are “temptations” for vulnerable and feeble children. They do not have enough energy and reason to protect themselves. In particular, domestic violence has turned many gentle children into violent ones, even turned them into “child” criminals. According to a study by the Ministry of Public Security, the majority of young offenders have grown up from families who are not in harmony and must be familiar with seeing scenes of violence within their own families: 8% of offenders have divorced parents, 49% complained about their parents' treatment. According to survey data of 2,209 students in reformatory schools, up to 49.81% of these live in the shabby, cruel and brutal treatment of their parents. The number of children beaten by their fathers accounts for 23% (6 times that of mothers beating); to be beaten by stepmothers, stepfathers accounted for 20.3% [12]. Thus, domestic violence not only causes negative consequences in today’s society but also for the future when more and more children are physically and mentally hurt. Domestic violence is not only a whip on the skin, it does not stop at the coldness and carelessness of the adults in the circle of life, nor is it just the deprivation of life; domestic violence also happens in the form of sexual abuse from family members towards children, especially girls. The typical cases such as stepfather, father, uncle, grandfather “raping” his daughters or nieces are happening more and more, but there is less analysis of the cause and the nature of the incident as well. Perhaps, it is a form of domestic violence that people are not fully aware of, do not really take proper care of it, so when it happens, they often do not think it is a violent act to condemn, denounce. Because of the mindset of embarrassment and shame of Asians which are not used to talking about sex, mostly children have not been instructed and educated on gender issues, sexual health, and reproduction health to be able to protect themselves. Another form of domestic violence is happening to children in almost every family, but it is rarely mentioned when referring to domestic violence - Violence in forcing children to study, mature according to the framework, parents' wishes. “Achievement disease”, hope for deposit, Pham Ngoc Trang and Dang Thi Quyen 26 unconditional loves are turning the parents more “authoritarian” in educating their children. They want their children to study well, to choose a school, a career of their own wishes. However, parents forget that their childhoods need to be loved, freely discovered, and entitled to love and to choose career based on their abilities. The products of this form of violence are generations of children who are emotionless, live and work like robots, are easily bored, negative and fall behind when they leave their parents. Domestic violence is a serious social issue that has many grave consequences, first of all violating the rights of human, honor, dignity and life of every individual, especially women and girls. Domestic violence undermines traditional values, adversely affects the learning environment of the generation, and affects the healthy safety of the community and social order. 2.3. The cause of domestic violence Domestic violence can originate from many causes, but perhaps, the first reason that needs to be identified is the perception of each person. The thought of “respect the men and disrespect men”, the patriarch, the mindset of “giving love to the whip”, the thought of “teaching children from the beginning of childhood”, the thought of “imposing” are ingrained in the thought of many people from generation to generation; psychology “good showing bad cover”, avoid “wash one's dirty linen in public”, lack of awareness and understanding of laws are increasing the level of domestic violence, especially in rural areas. The second reason that needs to mention is the lack of economy, difficult economy creates pressure, stress, destitution in the family. Thereby, it easily leads to social evils such as alcohol, gambling and also lead to domestic violence. Another cause that also needs to mention is the attitude of the society, the legal sanctions are not strong enough to deter, the indifference of those around the family violence family as an “invisible stick” to support the maintenance of Domestic violence in society. 2.4. Prevention of and Control of Domestic Violence Domestic violence prevention is the implementation of activities to change perceptions and behaviors towards domestic violence, contributing to the elimination of domestic violence and raising public awareness of the cultural traditions of people and families in Vietnam The family is the home of every person, the cell of society, an important environment for forming, nurturing and educating the human personality. “Children today, the world tomorrow”, therefore, it is essential to prevent domestic violence, especially to minimize the impact of domestic violence on children. In recent years, our Party and State have issued many documents to promote the work of building and developing families in the period of renovation without violence, such as: The 2013 Constitution; Directive No. 49/CT-TW of February 21st, 2005 of the Party Central Committee's Secretariat on family building in the period of industrialization and modernization; The Politburo's Resolution No. 48/NQ-TW of May 24th, 2005, on the strategy to build and complete the Vietnamese legal system, including the law on population, family, ch
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