Nghiên cứu ứng dụng kỹ thuật kích thích hồi tưởng ký ức bằng video trong dạy - học ngoại ngữ

Video-stimulated recall (tạm dịch là Kỹ thuật kích thích hồi tưởng qua việc sử dụng videoVSR) được hiểu là một kỹ thuật kích thích hồi tưởng trí nhớ qua việc sử dụng video. Với kỹ thuật này, đối tượng nghiên cứu được xem lại đoạn băng ghi hình lại các hoạt động của mình nhằm hỗ trợ, gợi nhớ cho đối tượng nghiên cứu về suy nghĩ của mình trong một tình huống liên quan đến vấn đề nghiên cứu. Kỹ thuật này đã được sử dụng trong một số nghiên cứu trong giáo dục và một số lĩnh vực khác. Tuy nhiên, việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật này trong việc hỗ trợ giáo viên phát triển khả năng phản hồi về việc dạy-học trên lớp còn rất ít, đặc biệt ở các nước châu Á và ở Việt Nam. Bài viết này báo cáo về một nghiên cứu của tác giả trong việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR với 04 giảng viên tiếng Anh tại 04 trường đại học công lập trên địa bàn Hà Nội. Phương pháp thu thập số liệu là phỏng vấn, quan sát và phỏng vấn ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR mang lại kết quả khả quan trong việc hỗ trợ giáo viên phát triển khả năng phản hồi trong quá trình dạy-học. Tuy nhiên, do ảnh hưởng của một số yếu tố về văn hóa, xã hội, người sử dụng kỹ thuật này phải rất linh hoạt và cần có sự chuẩn bị kỹ. Bài tham luận cũng đưa ra một số chia sẻ và gợi ý để sử dụng kỹ thuật này hiệu quả nhất.

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Chin lc ngoi ng trong xu th hi nhp Tháng 11/2014 715 NGHIÊN CỨU ỨNG DỤNG KỸ THUẬT KÍCH THÍCH HỒI TƯỞNG KÝ ỨC BẰNG VIDEO TRONG DẠY-HỌC NGOẠI NGỮ Nguyn Thanh Nga Trường Đại học Sư phạm Nghệ thuật Trung ương Tóm t t: Video-stimulated recall (tạm dịch là Kỹ thuật kích thích hồi tưởng qua việc sử dụng video- VSR) được hiểu là một kỹ thuật kích thích hồi tưởng trí nhớ qua việc sử dụng video. Với kỹ thuật này, đối tượng nghiên cứu được xem lại đoạn băng ghi hình lại các hoạt động của mình nhằm hỗ trợ, gợi nhớ cho đối tượng nghiên cứu về suy nghĩ của mình trong một tình huống liên quan đến vấn đề nghiên cứu. Kỹ thuật này đã được sử dụng trong một số nghiên cứu trong giáo dục và một số lĩnh vực khác. Tuy nhiên, việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật này trong việc hỗ trợ giáo viên phát triển khả năng phản hồi về việc dạy-học trên lớp còn rất ít, đặc biệt ở các nước châu Á và ở Việt Nam. Bài viết này báo cáo về một nghiên cứu của tác giả trong việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR với 04 giảng viên tiếng Anh tại 04 trường đại học công lập trên địa bàn Hà Nội. Phương pháp thu thập số liệu là phỏng vấn, quan sát và phỏng vấn ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR. Kết quả nghiên cứu cho thấy việc ứng dụng kỹ thuật VSR mang lại kết quả khả quan trong việc hỗ trợ giáo viên phát triển khả năng phản hồi trong quá trình dạy-học. Tuy nhiên, do ảnh hưởng của một số yếu tố về văn hóa, xã hội, người sử dụng kỹ thuật này phải rất linh hoạt và cần có sự chuẩn bị kỹ. Bài tham luận cũng đưa ra một số chia sẻ và gợi ý để sử dụng kỹ thuật này hiệu quả nhất. Abstract: Video-stimulated recall is a technique in which the participants are invited to watch video- recordings of particular events in which they are involved to stimulate their thinking. The use of the stimulated recall technique has grown in popularity particularly in studies of teachers’ beliefs and practices. However, there is little discussion on the utilisation of video-stimulated recall to encourage teachers’ reflective thought in the classroom, especially in Asian countries. The present study investigated whether stimulated recall could facilitate and encourageVietnamese EFL teachers’ reflective practices in real-world context. The paper is drawn upon the findings of our research incorporating video- stimulated recall as a research technique in stimulated recall interviews in order to explore Vietnamese teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding learner autonomy. Data, which included interviews, videotaping, and observation, were collected with four EFL teachers with at least 5 years of experience at four universities in Hanoi, Vietnam. Findings show that the technique produces a maximum opportunity for reflective thought for the teachers involved. However, attention should be paid to develop creative and flexible solutions to the challenges that teachers may face due to the cultural influence on the reflective process. The article concludes with a summary of implications for future research and practices. Key words: video-stimulated recall, reflection, language education, Vietnamese teachers, higher education VIDEO-STIMULATED RECALL IN LANGUAGE EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY INTRODUCTION Researchers have recognised stimulated recall as a valuable technique for exploring the reflections on decision-making processes, especially for capturing teacher thought in the classroom (Calderhead, 1981). While previous research has explored the use of video stimulated recall (VSR) technique as a research technique (Dempsey, 2010), there is a lack of research that explores the potential benefits of using VSR in promoting teachers’ reflection. This paper draws on the author’s use of video-stimulated recall interviews in her PhD project on exploring teachers’ beliefs and behaviours regarding learner autonomy in Vietnamese education contexts. This Ti u ban 5: #ng d$ng công ngh và thit b trong ging dy và nghiên c%u v ngoi ng 716 article offers an account of incorporating stimulated recall technique for the practice of teacher reflection in teaching. It first discusses the potential benefits of utilising video stimulated recall technique in teaching; and then presents implications for successful implementation of this technique in helping teachers promote their practice of reflection. LITERATURE REVIEW Stimulated Recall Technique Since Bloom (1953) first described stimulated recall (SR) as a research technique in psychology, SR has also been used extensively in teaching and learning research (Dempsey, 2010; Theobald, 2011) typically to explore teachers’ cognitive processes while reflecting on their teaching following a teaching episode. While Bloom used audio recordings in his original study, video recordings are now commonly used in SR research (Lyle, 2003). Video-stimulated recall (VSR) then is a research technique in which participants view video-recordings of themselves participating in a particular event, e.g. a lesson. The video acts as a prompt to help individuals recall their thoughts in relation to their observed actions as much as possible as they occurred during the event observed (Calderhead, 1981; Dempsey, 2010; Theobald, 2011). It is posited that video technology provides a form of scaffolding that allows for self-analysis of observed behaviours by providing a graphic stimulus for individuals to measure what they perceived they did to what they observe themselves doing. Video-simulated recall (VSR) has been used in a variety of ways. For example, VSR has been used to explore the instructional and organisational practices of elementary school teachers and the beliefs that guide their practices in their classrooms (Hoffman, 2003).VSR techniques have also been used for scaffolding student-teachers’ developing practices (Rich & Hannafin, 2009) and to support classroom teachers’ professional development and teaching practices (Stough, 2001). For example, Stough (2001) investigated whether VSR could facilitate the reflective thoughts of special education student-teachers in real-world contexts. In this study, Stough (2001) compared the effectiveness of VSR on two groups. The intervention group received additional training that would assist them to reflect on classroom interactions or supervision consultations while on school practicum whereas the control group did not; both groups however engaged in VSR sessions. Stough found that student-teachers from both groups became comfortable with the VSR technique but those from the intervention group became more quickly familiar and comfortable with the technique, they seldom relied on prompts from the researchers for recall when observing themselves on video, and they readily and prolifically expressed their thoughts concerning the targeted teaching sequences. While there are benefits of using VSR as a research technique, there are some limitations that should be considered. Previous research, for example, Gass and Mackey (2000) posited that one cannot assume that research participants can articulate their internal processes of an event as these behaviours are observed after the fact. That is, there is a distance of time and place between when the observer recalls their thoughts about their behaviours and the time and place of the actual event. Further, Gass and Mackey suggest that individuals, in their recall, may very well create explanations of their actions whether or not these can be justified rather than engage in deep reflection on their actions. Lyle (2003) concurs that an individual may, in fact, be reacting to or describing their feelings to what they currently see or hear instead of recalling the thoughts or feelings they had at the time of an actual episode or interaction. Another concern is whether tacit knowledge can be verbalised (Calderhead, 1981). In this, teachers’ behaviour may be automated and thus difficult to access and explain at a conscious level, particularly after the event. Thus, it is important to acknowledge the distinction between the recall of an event and reflection on an event and what it is individuals are being asked to do. Teachers’ reflection Reflection has been essentially conceived as a “cyclical and recursive process that at least Chin lc ngoi ng trong xu th hi nhp Tháng 11/2014 717 includes problem-solving which coincides with awareness-raising in order to construct professional knowledge” (Marcos & Sanchez &Tillema, 2011, p. 22).The notion of teacher reflection has been discussed widely in teaching practice (Marcos & Sanchez &Tillema, 2011). Killen (2014) stated that: No matter how well you teach, there is always room for improvement. One way to continually improve is to adopt a systematic approach to learning from your day-to-day teaching experiences. By looking at how you teach, thinking about why you do it that way, and evaluating how well it works, you can identify your strengths and target things to improve. This process is referred to as critical reflection and it is a vital part of effective teacher planning, decision-making and teaching” (p. 111) The practice of reflection is said to provide teachers with several benefits including scaffolding teachers’ critical thinking, providing a source of knowledge construction in teaching, promote teachers’ self-regulation (Marcos & Sanchez & Tillema, 2011). Killen (2014) stressed that “experience alone is insufficient for teachers’ professional growth; but reflection on experience can be a powerful tool for improving teaching” (p. 117). Hence, teachers’ reflection is believed to be the “key strategy” in many professional development programs (Marcos & Sanchez & Tillema, 2011). Killen (2013) classified reflection into two main kinds: reflection-on-action and reflection-in- action. The first kind of reflection refers to teachers’ reflection on their teaching as it happens and the latter refers to teachers’ reflection on their teaching after it has happened (Killen, 2013). It is also important to pay attention to the depth of teachers’ reflection (varying from non-reflective to highly reflective) and the nature of the things they reflect on (varying from technical to ethical issues). The literature contains many suggestions for ways in which teachers, or teachers education students can learn to reflect on their teaching, on themselves as learners and on education in general. It is found that stimulated recall and collegial reflection increases self-reflection, and the stimulated recall is useful in assessing and understanding their teaching practices. However, there are few studies on how to help teachers promote the practice of reflection in the teaching process using VSR. A different approach to VSR that does not adhere to building on a cognitive recall model explores individuals’ perceptions of their observed cultural behaviours and practices. This socio- cultural approach allows participants to express their own understandings of what they observe about their actions rather than their actual thoughts and/or feeling for, and during, their observed behaviour. In other words, rather than trying to have participants recall what they were thinking during a particular task, this approach allows individuals an opportunity to review their behaviour in a holistic way and so describe their actions within a relevant context, not as something isolated as a ‘thinking’ process. It is this socio- cultural approach that was taken for the current research which explored Vietnamese English-as-a- foreign Language (EFL) lecturers’ beliefs about learner autonomy in a Vietnamese higher education context. However, it is critical to note that the possible tension may arise from utilising SR within both an Asian (Vietnamese) and Western (Australian) context. Zhang, Lin, Nokata and Boem (2005) have suggested that it is common for Asian people to present ‘desirable’ opinions rather than their own personal views. This cultural characteristic presents a methodological issue when using stimulated recall as this technique relies on the participants to think reflectively and to articulate their personal thoughts and feelings. A further cultural concern of Asian participants in cross- cultural research is the notion of saving ‘face’. Face here refers to self-image and feelings (Ho &Crookall, 1995). In communicating, it is very important for an Asian person to protect the other person’s self-image and feelings (face). It may prove challenging when using VSR techniques for participants to comment or reflect critically without losing face. The need to protect self- image may over-ride the need to provide an accurate portrayal of thoughts or feelings in relation to watching oneself on a video. Ti u ban 5: #ng d$ng công ngh và thit b trong ging dy và nghiên c%u v ngoi ng 718 Participants may believe it more important to ‘save face’, and modify their thoughts and views rather than present their true views or feelings. Hence, this study aims to investigate whether this technique could facilitate teachers’ reflection, especially with Vietnamese teachers. The following section details the use of stimulated recall procedures we have used to obtain data on teacher cognition. THE STUDY: Case study: Teachers’ beliefs about learner autonomy in language education This paper is drawn upon the findings from our case study research which was a mixed method study of Vietnamese EFL University teachers’ beliefs about learner autonomy, and their subsequent teaching practices in using strategies to promote learner autonomy. To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher incorporated VSR as a research technique to collect data on teachers’ beliefs and practice regarding learner autonomy in their classroom. The following sections present how VSR was utilised and lessons drawn from the research. As Borg (2003) explained, beliefs are based on evaluations and judgments and inferences of what people say, intend, and do. An individual’s beliefs often must be inferred from statements and actions (Borg, 2003). Therefore, the researcher deemed that stimulated recall interviews, along with observations and field notes would be an appropriate data collection technique to understand the nexus between teachers’ beliefs and teaching practices, in relation to learner autonomy. Learner autonomy is a relatively new concept in Vietnamese education but one that is stressed as important for teachers to incorporate in their teaching. The teachers in this study were university lecturers who taught English as a foreign language (EFL). Thus, the study aimed to explore the teachers’ subjective beliefs without having a theoretical foundation of learner autonomy. Data collection for the study occurred in three phases: an initial interview, three stimulated recall interviews, and a follow-up in-depth interview. The purpose of the initial interview was to collect background information and data about teachers’ espoused beliefs (Borg, 2003) about learner autonomy. This data was analysed and provided the framework for video-recorded observations on teaching activities in the teachers’ EFL classes. These recordings were the basis for the stimulated recall interviews (SRI). In the SRI, teachers watched videos of their teaching practices, and were asked to discuss their thinking and subsequent behaviours as they carried out their role in assisting students to be autonomous learners. Verbal prompts were used where needed to encourage the participants to reflect more deeply about what they were watching themselves doing. The purpose of using SRI in this study was to gain insight into why the informants chose to act/teach in certain ways (Calderhead, 1981; Dempsey, 2010; Lyle, 2003), and so was designed to bring beliefs-in-actions (Borg, 2003). In-depth interviews were also carried out on completion of all the stimulated recall interviews to understand further possible reasons affecting teachers’ translation of their understanding of learner autonomy into actual teaching practices. The following sections describe the use of stimulated recall interviews in more detail. It is interesting and critical to notice that the participants for this study were Vietnamese who were depicted as shy in communication (Pham, 2008). Such techniques are not generally used in Vietnamese classrooms for research and so the researcher explored some limitations when conducting the trial stimulated recall interview with the participants in the training sessions. For example one participant focused on her physical appearance and rather than recalling the observed teaching event, while another participant kept talking about something else not related to the event. The third participant just described her activities without further explanation of her thinking processes while teaching. The fourth teacher only talked when she was given questions, otherwise she silently watched her teaching practices. While participants became familiar with the method and better understood the requirements of recalling from the training sessions, the researcher found that the participants tended to be passive and dependent. Without prompting from the researcher, they did not talk about their Chin lc ngoi ng trong xu th hi nhp Tháng 11/2014 719 teaching when they viewed the videos. Thus, the researcher decided not to use the pure version of SRI technique, instead to use some excerpts with a developed interview protocol for the stimulated recall interview. Having prepared questions as prompts is not unusual for SRI protocol (Dempsey, 2010). Such questioning during the viewing of the videos has been identified as a significant issue, since inappropriate probing could lead to additional reflection and analysis (Dempsey, 2010; Lyle, 2003). Therefore, the researcher developed open-ended probes that would help participants remain focused on the issue of watching how they included learner autonomy in their teaching practices. Samples of the interviewing questions in relation to viewing episodes of including learner autonomy included: What were your thoughts of doing this activity? What were you thinking when you decided to do this? Why did you decide to do that? As suggested by O’Brien (1993), in order to record the teachers’ practices, two cameras were set up in the classroom. One camera was used to video the teacher and any other major instructional resources (such as slides, blackboard, etc.), and the second camera was used to video the general dynamics of the classroom activities. The photographs below outline the positioning of the cameras in the classroom. Camera one was positioned at the front of the class where the teacher generally stands to teach the lesson. Camera two was positioned at the back of the class to gain an overall sense of the whole classroom dynamic. During the lessons, the researcher was the video operator. O’Brien (1993) stated that “the number of video lessons is largely dependent upon the availability of resources, time” (p. 217). In the current study, sixteen videotapes (including four dry-run videos and 12 videos for interviews) were recorded with three lessons videoed with each teacher. After each recording, the researcher viewed the video and developed the interview
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