Resources and livelihood status of coastal fishing workers in Nghe An province, Vietnam

Abstract. The coastal areas of Nghe An Province have the strength to develop fisheries and fishery logistic services. However, fishermen in Nghe An coastal areas have been facing lots of difficulties in exploiting aquatic and sea products because the production and the productivity are decreasing, which causes the decrease in job and income of those who live by near-shore fishing. The article focuses on the analysis of resources and livelihood reality of fishermen fishing near-shore and their income, thence the author proposes appropriate livelihood forms to generate employment, raise income and improve the livelihood of coastal fishing workers in the coastal areas of Nghe An Province.

pdf8 trang | Chia sẻ: thanhle95 | Lượt xem: 69 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Resources and livelihood status of coastal fishing workers in Nghe An province, Vietnam, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
137 HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE DOI: 10.18173/2354-1067.2018-0058 Social Sciences, 2018, Volume 63, Issue 7, pp. 137-144 This paper is available online at RESOURCES AND LIVELIHOOD STATUS OF COASTAL FISHING WORKERS IN NGHE AN PROVINCE, VIETNAM Hoang Phan Hai Yen Department of Geography - Resource Management, Vinh University Abstract. The coastal areas of Nghe An Province have the strength to develop fisheries and fishery logistic services. However, fishermen in Nghe An coastal areas have been facing lots of difficulties in exploiting aquatic and sea products because the production and the productivity are decreasing, which causes the decrease in job and income of those who live by near-shore fishing. The article focuses on the analysis of resources and livelihood reality of fishermen fishing near-shore and their income, thence the author proposes appropriate livelihood forms to generate employment, raise income and improve the livelihood of coastal fishing workers in the coastal areas of Nghe An Province. Keywords: Resource; livelihood, female workers, coastal areas of Nghe An Province 1. Introduction The livelihood is life earning of humankind through the use of resources (human, natural, material, financial, social, etc.) in a vulnerable environment managed by organizations, institutions, and policies. When it adapts or avoids negative impacts from a vulnerable environment, and ensures the existence and development of resources of the present and future, the livelihood is considered as sustainable (Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017). Therefore, livelihood is more broadly understood than the concept of work, which encompasses all capabilities and assets of a human being on the path to earning a living. Livelihood research is a study of vulnerable contexts, livelihood resources, livelihood activities, policies, processing and structures as well as livelihood strategies, and livelihood outcomes (Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017). The coastal areas of Nghe An Province are defined as administrative boundaries of 05 districts and towns adjacent to the sea: Quynh Luu, Hoang Mai, Dien Chau, Nghi Loc and Cua Lo Town. This area includes 1,114.87 km2 on land, 4,230 nautical miles at sea, and lies on 82 km on the coastline. A good natural condition, abundant natural resources, and abundant, young, strong and experienced workforce are advantageous for the development of economic fields closely connected to the sea such as seaport, marine transportation, marine tourism and especially fisheries and aquaculture. However, as in many other places, the coastal areas of Nghe An Province is in a situation of over-exploitation of resources, which leads to difficulties for local communities in terms of livelihood and incomes, and for those directly and mainly depending on the income from fisheries Received January 11, 2018. Accepted July 19, 2018. Contact Hoang Phan Hai Yen, e-mail address: hoangphanhaiyen@vinhuni.edu.vn Hoang Phan Hai Yen 138 and agriculture. In 2016, the population in the coastal areas is 894,096 people, of which the workforce encompasses 617,600 people, accounting for nearly 69.1% of the population of the whole region (Nghe An Statistics Office, 2011 and 2017). Notably, the workforce in the coastal areas has a low level of education and limited access to livelihood resources. The number of professional and technical workers is only 4.7% to 6.2%. Female workforce accounts for about half of total workforce. Therefore, the support to create the livelihood for coastal fishermen, especially those who exploit inshore resources, is an issue of concern in the socio-economic development strategy of Nghe An Province. (Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017). 2. Content 2.1. Data and research methodology 2.1.1. Data The data of the article was calculated and analysed from resources such as annual statistic publication by Nghe An Provincial Department of Statistics, reports by Nghe An Provincial People’s Committee and Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, and Department of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs. Primary data was collected, processed and calculated into tables in order to make comparisons, comments and analysis. All data were collected in the period from 2010 to 2016, the survey was conducted in 2017. Notably, the article used the questionnaire set by Nghe An Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development within the Program of Aquaculture Support under the project of FSPS (Nghe An Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2010). 2.1.2. Research methodology The research integrated several methods such as data and document collection, analysis, synthesis and comparison. Especially, based on the questionnaire set by Nghe An Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development within the Program of Aquaculture Support under the project of FSPS, the author used two main methods: - Survey: Usage of questionnaire to do the survey of 100 Fishermen living in 4 communes: Dien Bich (Dien Chau District), Nghi Thiet Commune (Nghi Loc District), Quynh Lap Commune (Quynh Luu District), Nghi Tan Commune (Cua Lo Town) on the reality of livelihood types, assets, household income, advantages, disadvantages during the production, desire and job suggestion by Fishermen. - Interview of experts: This is the interview of experts from the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs, heads of Agriculture Divisions, Labor, and Invalids and Social Affairs Divisions in coastal districts on livelihood activity of fishermen of 4 communes in Nghe An coastal areas. 2.2. Research results 2.2.1. Fishermen livelihood resources in Nghe An coastal areas a. Workforce The population of Nghe An coastal areas in 2016 was 894,096 inhabitants accounted for 29.18% of Nghe An Provincial population with a workforce of 671,600 people making up 75.11% of the population of the whole area and 32.6% of the workforce of the entire Nghe An Provincial workforce (Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017). In the whole workforce, the regular working workforce with 296.6 thousand people accounted for 48% of the regional workforce. While irregular working workforce was 321 thousand people accounted for 52%. A remarkable issue is that the rate of the irregular working Resources and livelihood status of coastal fishing workers in Nghe An province, Vietnam 139 workforce from 2010 to 2016 dramatically increased, from 40,5% in 2010 to 52% in 2016. This was caused by an environmental incident occurred in Ha Tinh Province in the early 2016 and thousands of workers in Nghe An coastal areas have lost their job. Table 1. Population and workforce in Nghe An coastal areas from 2010 to 2016 Unit: Thousand people No Indicator 2010 2012 2013 2014 2016 1 Population 853,1 866,4 875,6 884,9 894,1 2 Workforce 528,9 559,7 574,4 560 617,6 4 Regular working workforce 314,7 331,2 333,6 323,3 296,6 5 Irregular working workforce 214,2 228,5 240,8 236,7 321 - Percentage ( %) 40,5 40,8 41,9 42,3 52,0 Source: Processing, statistics from (Nghe An Statistics Office, 2011 and 2017; Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017) By the survey of 100 workers in 4 communes in Nghe An coastal areas, the reality of educational background was as follows: Table 2. Reality of worker’s educational background Indicator Dien Bich Commune Nghi Thiet Commune Quynh Lap Commune Nghi Tan Commune Average worker’s age 41 45 45 43 Educational level (%) Primary education 22,5 16,5 4,3 8,0 Lower secondary education 47,0 65,0 73,9 50,1 Upper secondary education 29,5 14,7 21,7 43,5 Not graduated from primary school 1,0 3,8 0,1 0,0 Specialized level of workers (%) Intermediate 21,0 11,8 13,6 6,4 Associate degree 6,3 6,2 7,6 16,2 Bachelor degree 2,4 2,6 4,5 4,8 Vocational 17,3 18,5 9,1 21,0 No diploma 53,0 60,9 65,2 51,6 Field of specialization (%) Seafood fishing 18,0 13,4 8,7 14,0 Economics 17,4 21,0 14,3 15,1 Captain 5,1 2,3 4,3 3,8 Average number of people/household 6 5 6 6 Average number of workers/household 5 4 4 5 Source: Statistics from the result of the survey in 2017 Hoang Phan Hai Yen 140 The workforce in communes was young with the average age of 44 years old for four communes in question. This is the age at which workers have a lot of career experience but also a barrier to moving to a new job. The educational level of the workforce is low. Most of the workers graduated from lower secondary school, accounting for over 47%. Only a few workers graduated from high school. However, among the 100 surveyed workers, almost half of them were professionally trained. But this number of workers was mainly trained at the intermediate level and pursued vocational training. The main field of expertise was fishing. Hence, it is difficult for labor to access other sources of livelihood independent of the sea. The number of workers without qualifications was very high, over 51.6%. This is one of the major obstacles for the coastal areas to change the professional structure. In terms of household’s workers, these areas have an average of members per household from 5 to 6. The average number of workers per household is from 4 to 5. This is an advantage for fishermen because fishing requires a lot of workers. However, this average number of workers per household is also a difficulty for employment solution. Due to the fact the fishing requires healthy male workers, female workers stay at home and wait for their husband and children, the employment solution for female workers in general and female workers waiting for the return of their husband and children’s boat in particular stays very hard but necessary in the coastal areas in the current time. b. Source of capital According to the marine workforce survey, the average annual income per household is 75.51 million VND. This medium income level allows the fishermen to invest their savings to their production. The average working capital per household is quite high, at 193.32 million VND. This is attributed to the fishermen’s need of buying fishing vessels. In particular, the capital owned by the fishermen only accounts for 30.2 % of the total amount of their capital while the remaining is the debt capital. The investment ability of the marine labour is therefore still modest. Source: Statistics from the result of the survey in 2017 Resources and livelihood status of coastal fishing workers in Nghe An province, Vietnam 141 The density of entrepreneurial financial organizations in the coastal areas is still low, with mainly the presence of Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development and Vietnam Bank for Social Policies, which are official financial organizations. The local credit funds and private organizations have not performed any essential role in providing capital for the workforce. Meanwhile, the majority of job types have a high demand for capital. Especially, the shift from near-shore fishing to off-shore fishing requires the capital of around 2 billion VND per boat, only 10% of which is offered by banks. 2.2.2. The reality of livelihood of fishermen in the coastal areas of Nghe An province a. The major livelihood activities Table 3. The structure of fishing jobs of fishermen (Source: Survey of village/ward officials in 2017) Job Time Number (of working means and workers) Requirement Fishing area Notes 1. Surrounding net Southern season (March to July). Northern season (August to December). Ship docking after 7 days 184 boats 300-400 workers Techniques and wealthy experience of fishing Tonkin Gulf, Quang Nam, Da Nang 323 boats in the past; currently 284 boats 2. Cast net with 4 perches Year-round 202 boats 600 workers Techniques and experience of fishing Coastal areas in Nghe An Popular in Quynh Lap village, Dien Chau village 3. Two- layers fishing net During August to March. Ship docking after 10 days 250 boats 644 workers Boat owners with experience of fish catching and navigating Further from the coastline than the two above jobs. Increasing trend, one of the jobs with lucrative income 4. Sentinel crab trapping From April to July, ship docking after 10 days 250 boats 653 workers Experience of aquatic exploitation 5. Driftnet (from August to March), ship docking after 3 to 4 days 363 boats 1000 workers In-shore area 6. Cast net with 2 perches Southern season (March to August), ship docking daily or after 2 days 435 boats 1300-1500 workers No demanding requirement for techniques Coastal exploitation Fishing boats with a capacity of under 20 CV Hoang Phan Hai Yen 142 The number of inhabitants and workers in the coastal areas of Nghe An Province is rapidly increasing. The coastal areas, however, lack agricultural land. This leads to pressure on production and employment, as well as that on building or changing livelihood. The findings in the job surveys of those who have a dependent livelihood and near-shore fisheries show that their major job is fishing. The employees following this job account for more than 30% of the total workforce. The fishing workforce is mainly male workers, who are healthy and experienced. In 2016, there were 1,684 fishing boats or ships engaged in fishing in the coastal areas of Nghe An Province. Most of them are fishing boats with a capacity below 90 CV; they are therefore likely to operate near-shore fishing. This puts pressure on the coastal aquatic resources. Table 4. Major occupational activities of fishermen in the coastal areas No. Occupational activity Number of workers Characteristics of workers Characteristic of activity Average income per month (thousand VND) 1 Pig breeding 14 Female, aged from 15 to 60, whose husbands set sail, process seafood Year-round 1.440 2 Aquatic products trading 16 Female, aged 15 to 55, whose husbands and sons/ daughters set sail; male not setting sail Depending on how long the vessels set sail, Year-round 3.200 3 Fishing 25 Male, aged from 20 to 65 Year-round 2.350 4 Fishery logistic services 15 Female and male, unable to set sail due to their seasickness Year-round 1.200 5 Hired employment 7 Unmarried, female Year-round 1.400 6 Mechanical engineering (boat & ship repairing) 2 Skilled male Year-round 2.400 7 Salt production 5 Healthy male and female Year-round (subsidiary occupation) 800 8 Aquatic processing 16 Female, aged from 15 to 55, whose husbands set sail Occasional, depending on when the vessels dock 900 Source: Statistics from the result of the survey in 2017 In addition to fishing, there is also a wide range of jobs in Nghe An coastal areas. Most of their livelihood activities, for instance, pig breeding, aquatic products trading, fishery logistic services, aquatic processing, salt production, however, do depend on fisheries. This is due to the Resources and livelihood status of coastal fishing workers in Nghe An province, Vietnam 143 fact that either their inputs come from fishery products or they serve the seafaring. Hired employment in the urban area is an exception, which means it doesn’t depend on fisheries. However, it plays just a marginal role in the local area. Aquatic products trading is the most profitable among all types of jobs of fishermen surveyed in Nghe An coastal areas, with the monthly income per head reaching 3.2 million VND. It was followed by the figure for fishing, at 2.35 million VND. Fishing, despite not being the most profitable job, is still preferable to the local workers, especially the male workers, because it is the traditional job. Additionally, this trade provides inputs and materials for other industries such as aquatic products trading, aquatic processing. Fishery logistic services also offer modest income. Local boat repair services, involved with demanding requirement in terms of techniques and skills, have not developed yet. Just a small proportion of the total household income is contributed by the remaining jobs. b. Difficulties in occupational types of fishermen in Nghe An coastal areas The difficulties in livelihood and occupational activities of fishermen in Nghe An coastal areas, in spite of being diverse, are primarily attributed to the lack of capital. The majority of those who are involved with fishing, fishery trading and processing are in need of capital to expand their business and buy high-capacity boats to go offshore. 12 participants in the survey said that they had no difficulties. Yet they include those who already have boats for offshore fishing, single or unmarried female workers and those with relatively good economic conditions. Table 5. Some major difficulties for fishermen surveyed in Nghe An coastal areas No. Difficulty Number of people involved with each type of difficulty Proportion of people involved with each type of difficulty (%) 1 Lack of capital 52 52,0 2 No difficulties 12 12,0 3 No stable occupation 10 10,0 4 Decrease of marine profits 15 15,0 5 Weather dependent 7 17,0 6 Lack of workers 4 14,0 Source: Statistics from the result of the survey in 2017 It is easy to access to fishermen household capital. However, the amount of loans is low, the loan term is short, and the interest is not preferential. As for social policy beneficiaries and poor households, loaning through the social organizations, in spite of being easy, offers a very low amount of loans. Also, the State has not had policies exclusively for fisheries. 3. Conclusions The types of jobs in coastal areas of Nghe An Province, in spite of being diverse, primarily depend on fisheries. Most of the male workers work in aquatic exploitation while the female gets involved with related jobs such as Pig breeding, aquatic products trading, aquatic processing. For the most part, fishermen household income is pretty high yet unstable due to its aquatic dependent. In addition to advantages, the livelihood in coastal areas has certain difficulties that are characterized by each type of job. In order to improve life quality of fishermen and sustainably develop marine resources, in the near future, occupational types in coastal areas of Nghe An province should be developed, changed their directions and methods. They include Hoang Phan Hai Yen 144 fishing; aquatic products trading; aquatic logistic services; fish source processing, seafood processing; aquaculture; tourism; alcohol making combined with Pig breeding; rattan – yarn knitting; jobs in the industrial zone; others jobs such as shipping services, labour export, and hired labour. REFERENCES [1] Nghe An Statistics Office, 2011 and 2017. Nghe An Provincial statistical yearbooks in 2010 and 2016. Nghe An Publishing House. [2] Nghe An Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2010. Creating livelihood for coastal fishermen community in Quynh Lap Village, Quynh Luu District, Nghe An Province. FSPS Project. [3] Nghe An Department of Labour - Invalids and Social Affairs, 2017. Review of labour and employment in the period from 2011 to 2017. [4] Nghe An Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, 2015. Review of aquacultur
Tài liệu liên quan