Tiếng Anh chuyên ngành Kinh tế công nghiệp

1.what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and households. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are coordinated through market exchange. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? Households. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? It depends on the demand for final produck. 5. what do firms do with the resource they buy from households? They transform resources inputs in to but puts of products and services then sell to households. 6. how can consumers get money to buy products sold by firms? Consumers obtain income/money throught the sale on loan of their resources to firms. 7.what do both households and business firms do through market exchange? They both desire to maximize their economic well being.

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UNIT1: MARKET CAPITALISM I.comprehension questions 1.what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and households. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are coordinated through market exchange. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? Households. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? It depends on the demand for final produck. 5. what do firms do with the resource they buy from households? They transform resources inputs in to but puts of products and services then sell to households. 6. how can consumers get money to buy products sold by firms? Consumers obtain income/money throught the sale on loan of their resources to firms. 7.what do both households and business firms do through market exchange? They both desire to maximize their economic well being. Unit 2: 1.what is a market? => It is an arrangement by which sellers and buyers of a commodity interact to determine its price and quantity. 2, What are wage rates? => wagertes are prices of different kinds of humman labor. 3, what will happen if the demand for a given good rises? => the sellers will raise the ptice to ration out a limited supply and higher price will encurage greater production. 4, What will seller do if their products become overstocked at the going market price? => the sellers will lower prices to unload unwanted models. 5, how can an quilibrium between buyer and sellers and sellers be restored when a good becomes overstocked at the going market price? => when a goods becomes overstocked the seller will lower its price.At the lower, consumers will want to buy moer, and producers will want to produce fewer. As aresult, the quilibrium will b restore. 6, What is a factor of production? => It is an inut into the productive procers 7, Name three factor of production? => Land, labor and capital. UNIT 3:MACROECONOMICS. I.comprchension question 1. what is the importance of macroeconomics? Macroeconomic performance is a central factor affecting the success or failure of nations. 2 what does macroeconomics study? Macroeconomic studies overall economic trends such as employment levels, economic growth, and inflation. 3. the article discusser countries at 2 opposite extremes, what are they? They are the countries which that grow rapidly without major imbalames and the one that stagnate and seem stuck in a situation of high inflation and high trade deficits. 4.what does fical policy deal with? It deals with government spending and taxing. 5. how can government have a majoy impact on a country’s economic performance? Government have majoy impact on a country’s economic performance throught its economic plicies fiscaland monetary policies. 6. what are four main areas that macroeconomics focuses on? They are GNP, employment, inflation and balance of payment. 7.what are four tools of macroeconomic policy? They are fiscal policy, monetary policy, in come policy and foreign economic policy. 8. what do modern economists know more about than in the past? Modern economicsts know more about know pulic policies offect the economy. Unist5: 1, What are coal and timber ewamples of? => They are examples of raw materialr. 2, What happens to goods not consumed in he country? => It can besold to other coutries as export. 3, how is the size of a country’s economy determined? => the size of a country’s economy is determined by the total amount of goods and services that it produces. 4, What it the best way to measure economy growth? => the best way is to put a monetary value on every thing bought or slod. 5, what is GDP? => GDP is the measures of economy activity that includes all the goods and servies that it produces. 6, What happens in a healthy economy? A healthy economy of sows steadily over a relatively long period time. 7, What is a recession? => arecers ion is a health economy ….. 8, How is GNP different from GDP? => GDP concentrates covering the economic activity which takes place within the country’s borders, while GNP includes net international trade. Exercise : rewrite the following sentences using an appropriate relative pronoun and clause. 1.coffee is one of our big exporters.foreigners love our coffee a lot. ->coffee which foreigners love a lot is one of our big exporters. 2.tom is the youngest director of the company.tom’s father was also a director. -> tom is the youngest director of the company whose father is also a director. 3.journalists talk much about this company. Its rubbish badly pollutes the environment. -> journalists talk much about this company whose rubbish badly pollutes the environment. 4. engineers are needed here . they will be paid well. ->engineers who are needed here will be paid well. 5. workers ask for higher wages. They work very hard. -> workers are that work very hard ask for higher wages. 6. goods are overstocked. Sellers have to lower their price. -> goods whose price are overstocked sellers have to lower. 7. the firms have a loan to buy new machinery. They have to pay it back soon. ->the firms which have a loan to buy new machinery have to payit back soon. 8. japan is a developed country. It has a big automobiles industry. -> japan which is a developed country has a big automobiles industry. 9.the average wage in Vietnam is very low. The governmant is trying to raise it up. -> the average wage in Vietnam which the goverment is trying to raise it up is very low. 10. customers have to pay high.they will never come back to buy goods here. -> customers who have to pay high will never come back to buy goods here. 11.i saw the man .he told me to come back today. ->the man who I sold me to come back to day. 12.these workers decided to quit jobs. They are not well-paid. ->these workers who are not well paid decided to quit jobs. 13. you can keep money in backs. It is safer than buying gold today. -> you can keep the money in backs which is sayer than buying gold to day. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES: 1.the man who is standing there is my teacher. 2.the window which was broken in the storm last night has now been repaired. 3.the workers who work in this workshop are skilled workers. 4. economics students who are studying hard for their exams will do well. 5. some paintings which were stolen from the museum haven’t been fourd yet. 6. a lot of the people who were invited to the party can not come. 7. the factory which makes bicycles has no profit in 3 years. 8. the student taking part in the tour to paris last week were my students. 9.the story written by paul appeared in the magazine. 10. Most of the goods made in this factory are exported. 11. rice grown in many countries is a stable food throughout the world. 12.the cat walking on the wall is mine. 13. we are studying sentences contaniny adjective clauses. 14. the painting drawn by john was sold last week. REWRITE THESE SENTENCES USING ‘’UNLESS’’. 1.you can’t travel abroad unless you don’t have a passport. 2. I will tell him the truth unless you are at least 18 years old. 3. you can’t get a driver’s license unless you are at least 18 years old. 4.unless she doen’t studies hard, she will pass the exam. 5. unless I don’t get a raise in salary I will work hard. 6. I will become very fat unless I stop eating so much cake. 7. we won’t go on a excursion unless the weather is bad tomorrow. 8. you will get hungry during the class unless you eatbreakfast. CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO PASSIVE VOICE. 1.most economists define a nation’s wealth as what a citizen of its owns. a nation’s wealth is defined as what a citizen of its owns by most economists. 2.the government of china bought GM , the biggest motor company of the USA. GM the biggest motor company of the USA, was bought by the government of china. 3.they in vested most of their money in stock. Most of their money was invested in stock. 4. viet nam usually exports rice to countries in Africa. Rice is exports by viet nam to countries in Africa. 5.investors hope that the price of gold will rise sharply. It is hope that the price of gold will rise sharply by investors. 6. people consider that countries in central America are tax havens because they require little or no tax from the foreign investors who come there to set up oprations. Countries in central America are consider to be tax havens because they require little or no tax from the foreign investors who come there to set up oprations. REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES WITHOUT CHANGING THE MEANINGS. 1.the current account gives a comprehensive picture of international trade. A comprehensive picture of international trade is gives by the current account. 2.when a product is sold for money, this money can then be used to buy another product or to. When we sell a product for money we then can use this money to buy another productor to invest. 3.how quickly the economy can grow is determined by each country’s money supply. each country’s money supply determined how quickly the economy can grow. 4.money makes trade more manageable. Trade is make more manageable by money. 5.social security was set up to reduce poverty among the elderly and disabled by the government. the government set up social security to reduce poverty among the elderly and disabled. 6.china is said not to be able to come the greatest economy in the world by the economists because of its unequal development between the city and the country. the economists say that china not to because of its unequal development between the city and the country. 7. we calculate the valua of one currency in terms of another. the valua of one currency is calculated in terms of another. 8.the boss must sign the cheque soon. The cheque must be signed by the boss soon be. VOCABULARY EXERCISE 1. there are some public programs to help poor people, but NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are also important. 2. he must stop his exeessive spending or else he will not have enough money to feed himself. 3. if you study very hard for a very long time eventually you will be able to speak English well. 4. many people try to avoid taxation because they want to keep their money for themselves instead of giving it to the government. 5. his mother has very restrictive rules, he must be at home before 8p.m and he can’t bring his girlfriend home. 6.the company will implement their plan after they have enough money to do it. 7. the dollar is a very stable currency since its value only change very little during year. 8. the high tax on cigarettes induced him to quit smoking. 9. she has many assets including a car, a house, and a television. 10. the allocation of opportunities to study at this university should be based on student who has the highest ability, not who has the most money. 11. the compny finance it’s new machinery with a loan from the bank. 12.realestale includes land and all the buidings on it. 13. the balance of plement is a record of payments to other countries and receipts from other countries. 14. they are implement very difficult project that help to increase incomes in rural areas. 15. my household budget includes spending on housing , food, telephone,electricity and clothes. 16.in viet nam we measure distance in kilometers in America we use miles. 17.net profit is the profit that remains after paying all the expenses and taxes. 18.there are several large automobiles companies in japan including Toyota,Honda and Nissan. 19. they bought health insurance so if they are sick and must go to the hospital they won’t have to use their own money to pay the costs. 20. Vietnam should develop its foodstuffs industry since most of the people in Vietnam farmers. 21.if you exprt row materials you will earn less money than if you make them into a final product to export. 22. foreign in vestment in local real estate and local companies can also provide needed jobs for local people. 23.that company measuare its workers’ productivity not only by the number of shoes they produce but also by the quality of that shoes. 24.world economy sarted to get into recession at the end of the yeaf of 2007. III. Vocabulary Exercis Units 1: 1, He filled out each of the pagerrs in turn. 2, We must consider the economic well being of poor people when we make this policy. 3, The boss it the oly person with decision making Power in this company no one else can make. 4, Economists make many assume when they wirte their theories. 5, It is very dificult to coordinate the schedules of all the students and all the teachers in the university. 6, Salt is notto trans form For sugar even though they look the same. 7, The husband and wife are interdpendnt He can’t live without her and she can’t live without him. 8, The company wants to purchase Indexpensive goods in Viet Nam to send to America and sold in at high profit. 9, That company’s high profist arederived From the sale of shoes made in viet nam and sold in Janpan. 10, The chanes in government policy should transform The Vietnamese economy from the marxist economy into a marke economy. 11, They can keep the money for a given time period, for exemple, one year, one year, but then they must pay it back. 12, Many America bsiness fim Would you like ti invest in Viet Nam. 13. Many Vietnamese house holds Have more than two chidren. 14, The company have a loan for 500$ to buy new machines, but they must pay it back soon. 15. If want to pursue a career in business, you must understand the economy/ Unist2; 1, The workers to rush. over each other to get out of the burning factory. 2, With inflation, prices tend to rise very quickly. 3, she speaks English, Fench and German in addtion to Vietnamese. 4, At out store Vietnamese bicycles are over stock Nobody will want to buy them at today’s prince so they just stay in the store. 5,Conditions are very favorable for finding jobs in a growing economy. 6, During the war, the government ration out meat and other foods. 7, Each participant In the semnar had go give a short speech. 8, After they unload the goods from the shift you can take them to your store. 9, The new arrangement In the managing machine of the company makes it work more effciently. 10, A lot of Vietnames people ruch To shops when they hear of the shop’s sale off. They not even care about the quality of the goods. 11, The recent shift in the ewchange rate made import good cheaper. 12, The triad Of land, labor and capital are called factors of production. 13, After the war it is difficult to restore An economy to its previous state because of damage from bobs. 14, the process Of making banknotes is very simple, but it requires special inputs that ordinary people are not allowed to buy. 15. The new series of cars have mistakes in the hand brake, so people who planced an odrder for those cars now refuse to buy them. Unist 3: 1, There is a high government deficit because government spending is more tax revenues. 2, They really odmire him because he is very successful in his job. 3, His really performance him because he is very successful in his job. 4, In Vietnam there is a strog trend towards learning English,not Russian. 5, His gross income is 25.000$ per year, but after he pays his taxes he only $15.000. 6, The focus of his writinh is the agricultural sector of the Vietnames economy. 7, she earns 20kg of rice per month which is only about $5 in mnetary term. 8, A rapid rise in prices is called inflation. 9, Fiscal policy consists of government spending and taxion. 10, The level of prices depends on the amount of money in the economy. 11, At one extreme are people who love the Beatles, at the other are people who I them. 12, His anlysis of the economy shows hat growthaas increased and inflation fallen. 13, My math teacher had a big impact On me, that’s why I decided to become a my teacher too. 14, The imbalance Between imports and exports can cause problem for the economy. 15, There are many many different type of finacial instrument for lending money to the who need it. Uinis 4: 10, The suburb of Ha Noi should concentrate on craft industry because there are hundreds of handy craft villages. 11, Incomes have been increasing stradily and now people have enough money to live comfortably. 12, Quang ning has a abundance of coal. 13, Her nationality is English so she is a citizen of England. 14, Goods made in China is freatly comsume in Vietnam because of their low price an various desings. Unist 6: 1, If the of coffee is too high, people could choose tea as,substitute for coffee. 2, The financial crisis in the USA 2007 affect strongly to the word economy and have made it fall in the most serious recession in history. 3, In Vietnam, most companies are the small and medium- size enterprise And the governmer awlays creates the favorable condition for them to benefit. 4, Equilibrium .is the state in which market supply and demand balance each other and as a result, price become stable. 5,Low of spply is a microeconomix law stating that all other factors being equal, as the price of good or service increases, the quantily of goods and services offered by soppliers incereases and vice versa. 6, low a demand a microeconomic law stating that all other factors being equal, as te price of good or services increases, consumer demand for the goods and serivces will decrease and vice versa. 7, Demand a a given price is the amuont of goods and services which the buyer is eilling to by and the seller is willing to sell at that price. 8, Customers will get many benefit sich as convenience, saving time, when using the company’s products. 9, That company is not sufficient it to afford each staff a computer. UNIT1: MARKET CAPITALISM I.comprehension questions 1.what are the two major decision-making units which market capitalism contains? They are business firms and households. 2.how are the actions of business firms and households coordinated? They are coordinated through market exchange. 3.from whom does the business firm buy resources and sell outputs? Households. 4.what does the demand for resource inputs depend on? It depends on the demand for final produck. 5. what do firms do with the resource they buy from households? They transform resources inputs in to but puts of products and services then sell to households. 6. how can consumers get money to buy products sold by firms? Consumers obtain income/money throught the sale on loan of their resources to firms. 7.what do both households and business firms do through market exchange? They both desire to maximize their economic well being. Unit 2: 1.what is a market? => It is an arrangement by which sellers and buyers of a commodity interact to determine its price and quantity. 2, What are wage rates? => wagertes are prices of different kinds of humman labor. 3, what will happen if the demand for a given good rises? => the sellers will raise the ptice to ration out a limited supply and higher price will encurage greater production. 4, What will seller do if their products become overstocked at the going market price? => the sellers will lower prices to unload unwanted models. 5, how can an quilibrium between buyer and sellers and sellers be restored when a good becomes overstocked at the going market price? => when a goods becomes overstocked the seller will lower its price.At the lower, consumers will want to buy moer, and producers will want to produce fewer. As a
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