Tolerance in political ideology of Ho Chi Minh and its present value

Abstract During the process of leading the war for national independence and progress to socialism, Ho Chi Minh inevitably became a political strategist, who united the whole nation, built and constructed the country. As an authentic humanist, Ho Chi Minh's humanist ideology permeates in all his ideologies, including political ideology and creates deep tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology. Understanding the spirit of tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology will help to deepen the understanding of his noble personality and draw profound lessons about the cause of political innovation and international integration in the current stage.

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100 Chuyên san Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn TOLERANCE IN POLITICAL IDEOLOGY OF HO CHI MINH AND ITS PRESENT VALUE Do Duy Tu1* 1Dong Thap University *Corresponding author: duytugdct@gmail.com Article history Received: 17/3/2020; Received in revised form: 27/3/2020; Accepted: 17/4/2020 Abstract During the process of leading the war for national independence and progress to socialism, Ho Chi Minh inevitably became a political strategist, who united the whole nation, built and constructed the country. As an authentic humanist, Ho Chi Minh's humanist ideology permeates in all his ideologies, including political ideology and creates deep tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology. Understanding the spirit of tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology will help to deepen the understanding of his noble personality and draw profound lessons about the cause of political innovation and international integration in the current stage. Keywords: Tolerance, Ho Chi Minh’s tolerance, political tolerance. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TINH THẦN KHOAN DUNG TRONG TƯ TƯỞNG CHÍNH TRỊ HỒ CHÍ MINH VÀ GIÁ TRỊ HIỆN THỜI CỦA NÓ Đỗ Duy Tú1* 1Trường Đại học Đồng Tháp *Tác giả liên hệ: duytugdct@gmail.com Lịch sử bài báo Ngày nhận: 17/3/2020; Ngày nhận chỉnh sửa: 27/3/2020; Ngày duyệt đăng: 17/4/2020 Tóm tắt Trong quá trình lãnh đạo cuộc chiến tranh giành độc lập dân tộc, tiến lên chủ nghĩa xã hội, Hồ Chí Minh tất yếu trở thành nhà chiến lược chính trị, đoàn kết toàn dân tộc, xây dựng và kiến thiết đất nước. Là một nhà nhân văn chủ nghĩa đích thực, tư tưởng nhân văn Hồ Chí Minh thấm sâu vào mọi tư tưởng của Người, kể cả tư tưởng chính trị và tạo nên tính khoan dung sâu sắc trong tư tưởng chính trị Hồ Chí Minh. Tìm hiểu tinh thần khoan dung trong tư tưởng chính trị Hồ Chí Minh sẽ giúp chúng ta hiểu rõ hơn nhân cách cao cả của Người và rút ra những bài học sâu sắc cho sự nghiệp đổi mới chính trị, hội nhập quốc tế hiện nay. Từ khoá: Khoan dung, tinh thần khoan dung của Hồ Chí Minh, tư tưởng chính trị. 101 Tạp chí Khoa học Đại học Đồng Tháp, Tập 9, Số 2, 2020, 100-109 1. Introduction Ho Chi Minh's ideology of tolerance is an integral part of Ho Chi Minh's ideologies, consisting of a system of theoretical perspectives drawn from revolutionary practices, from the inheritance and development of tolerance values of the national tradition and the era, and culminating in the communist humanitarianism. Ho Chi Minh, a typical image of tolerance of Vietnam, from patriotism to Marxism - Leninism, “He combined Marxist spirit of tolerance and Vietnamese tradition of tolerance and kindness to form Ho Chi Minh’s tolerant spirit” [10, p. 147]. It was the humanistic spirit of Marxism - Leninism that created a turning point in the process of forming Ho Chi Minh’s ideology, which was the core of Ho Chi Minh's tolerance. Tolerance became his important characteristic in the process of finding the way to save the nation, liberate and construct the nation. With a tolerant mind- set, he became a communist soldier with a noble international proletariat. Ho Chi Minh’s tolerance has broad connotations, great contents, and covers all economic, political, cultural and social fields, etc. The tolerance spirit in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology contains suggestive values for the Communist Party of Vietnam to build an independence, autonomy and politic policy and diplomacy in the context of political innovation and international integration at present. 2. Basic expressions of tolerance spirit in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology First of all, tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology is the recognition of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of everyone. For Ho Chi Minh, basic human rights: the right to live, to have liberty, to pursue happiness, equality, etc. in the American Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Civil Rights of France in 1789 are “immortal words”, and “reasons that no one can deny”. Therefore, in the Party's brief outline drafted by Ho Chi Minh, the Party's policy is “a revolutionary bourgeois of civil rights and a revolutionary land to go to reach a communist society”. This revolution was responsible for collapsing the French empire, liberating the nation, bringing independence to the Fatherland and all freedoms for the people: people are free to organize, equalize men and women, universalize education, practice 8-hour working days, eliminate all nationalities, exempt taxes and divide land for poor farmers, etc. The new democratic revolution led by the Communist Party of Vietnam was aimed for basic human rights, independence and freedom, national self- determination, realization of advanced human right ideology of the times. In the victory of the August Revolution in 1945, the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam created the basic and necessary premise to fully realize and develop human rights. A series of great ideologies of Ho Chi Minh on building a democratic and rule-by-law state of Vietnam, protecting human rights and civil rights were proposed and applied in the practice of building and developing a new regime from 1945 to present. Under the direct leadership of Ho Chi Minh, the new Vietnamese state of the people in the form of the “National Liberation Committee” was elected by the National Assembly in Tuyen Quang on August 13, 1945, and then it was reformed as “Provisional Government” to prepare for the General Uprising. The ten major policies of the Viet Minh Front, also the Provisional Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, clearly reflected Ho Chi Minh's perspective on human rights. Among the ten policies, there are noteworthy ones that highlight and directly represent human rights and freedoms: “To promulgate the rights of the people: a) human rights; b) financial rights (ownership); c) civil rights (universal suffrage, democratic freedom, freedom of belief, freedom of thought, speech, assembly, travel, equality of ethnic minorities, men and women) (policy No. 5); “Building a national education; combating illiteracy, general education and compulsory education up to elementary level, building a new culture” [1, p. 425-426]. The issue of democracy and it practice was 102 Chuyên san Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn Ho Chi Minh's major concerns, especially the democracy in the Party to promote democracy in the society. Ho Chi Minh was a model of democratic centralism with humanistic elements. He required to practice broad democracy, respect the rights of mastery, respect the opinions of others, not impose, not privilege the truth, listen, sincerely acquire the right and reasonable opinions of others, without prejudice, and not consider themselves the only standard; respect the opinions of others, of the majority but still retain the unique features and individual independence. For Ho Chi Minh, the power is of the people, so they have to learn, ask, understand and for the people. This is no longer a matter of ideology and theory, but it has become a style imbued with Ho Chi Minh's humanism and cultural values. Moreover, tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology is also reflected in the responsibility to uphold the basic human rights; in establishing democracy and laws to ensure the exercise of universal human rights. The first Constitution in the history of the nation presided to be drafted by him was approved by the National Assembly on November 9, 1946. Right in the preamble, it was identified: “Ensuring the democratic rights of the people” is one of the basic principles of the Constitution. The 1946 Constitution devoted Chapter II stipulating the rights and obligations of citizens with 18 articles that provide relatively a full range of civil, political and economic rights, as well as the economic, social and cultural rights of the people. Regarding the building and exercise of power of the people, Ho Chi Minh affirmed: “Our country is a democratic country. All the benefits are for the people. All the powers are of the people ... The government from the commune to the Central Government is elected by the people”, “all the power in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam belongs to the people” [3, p. XIX]. The people exercise their power through the State; especially the National Assembly and the People's Councils at all levels are elected by the people and are responsible to the people. He wrote, “The task of our government and our Union is to serve the people. It means to serve as a slave for the people ... With that mission, you have to serve the people truthfully. It means anything that is beneficial to the people must be done. Anything that is harmful to the people must be avoided” [7, p. 432]. The building of a rule-by-law state of the people, by the people and for the people is to practice democracy and to exercise the people's sovereignty more widely and truly. The rule-by-law state governs society by law, but still combines ethics propaganda and education among the people. In order to well exercise the democratic rights of the people, according to Ho Chi Minh, revolutionaries must pay attention to and care for three relationships: relationships with oneself, relationships with people and relationships with work. For oneself, you must be diligent, thrifting, upright and impartial, not greedy for fame and arrogant, keep promise, maintain tenet; sacrifice and little material desire and keep secret. For people, we must be tolerant; for the Union, we must be serious, drawing for people, upright but not bold... For work, consider carefully, assertively, bravely... Secondly, tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology is reflected in his conception of building a new socialist regime. According to him, “there has never been an era or a country in which people have violated all their rights so cruelly” [3, p. 406]. Under the colonial regime, indigenous people were treated like modern “slaves”, trampling on human rights in Vietnam and the colonies. Besides, Ho Chi Minh clearly recognized limitations of the bourgeois revolution: “The French paradox is the same as the American paradox, that is, the capitalist paradigm, the way of destiny without arrival, the reputation of being republican and democratic; in fact, it deprives the peasantry, apart from oppressing the colonies. The revolution has been implemented for 4 times already, the way of the French peasantry has to find another way to escape from oppression” [4, p. 296]; “Although the US has successfully existed for 150 years, the peasantry is still miserable, still worrying 103 Tạp chí Khoa học Đại học Đồng Tháp, Tập 9, Số 2, 2020, 100-109 about the second revolution” [4, p. 291]. He realized that these revolutions would only bring freedom and happiness to a minority of people, but not bring independence and true freedom for the indigenous peoples and the majority of the working people. Under the capitalist regime, there is still rife with social injustice, oppression and exploitation. He rejected the path of the French and American bourgeois revolution because it did not bring the right to the masses and the happiness of the majority of the people. He chose to follow the path of the October Russian Revolution. He pointed out that the October Revolution of Russia was successful and thoroughly successful because “the people enjoyed the true happiness, freedom, equality, not freedom and equality that the French imperialist showed off in An Nam” [4, p. 304]. Thoroughly understanding Marxism- Leninism, Ho Chi Minh asserted that only socialism and communism freed peoples and working people from slavery. Since the nature of the socialism is humane, it respects and protects human rights. It is the radical revolutionary way to liberate the nation, liberate the class, free mankind from all oppression, exploitation, protection of freedoms and comprehensive human development, bringing happiness to the majority of people. Therefore, after the country gained independence, he still also emphasized: “Today we have built the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. But if the independent country and the people do not enjoy the happiness of freedom, then independence will not make any sense” [5, p. 64]. Closely linking freedom and independence with the happiness of the people and the majority of the people; closely associating the struggle for human liberation with national liberation and class liberation; raising the banner of national independence and socialism as a foundation to thoroughly guarantee human rights, liberating people is a core ideology throughout Ho Chi Minh's revolutionary life and the right choice of the Vietnamese revolution. Thirdly, the spirit of tolerance in Ho Chi Minh's political ideology expanded and developed the points of Marxism-Leninism on politics with the introduction of new ethical content, communist humanitarianism and political concept. He perceived that politics, in its true sense, must come from the goal of action for the sake of man, for the people and for humanity. In his view, all political activities must be based on political ethics, towards political ethical acts, and exercise the people's sovereignty. To accomplish political goals, political subjects must have political ethics, and political movements must be directed to political ethics. Political movements towards political ethics are genuine movements, such as genuine nationalist movements, genuine democracy and genuine freedom. According to Ho Chi Minh, politics is unity and the power of unity. Unity is the most typical political action, involving millions of people in the struggle for a developed and progressive society. The great unity in Ho Chi Minh's ideology is a dialectical philosophical thinking, pointing out the dialectical relationship between the common and the particular; between classes and people; national and international ones; between the basic social classes and the other social classes. In particular, tolerance is the common denominator, which is the basis for national solidarity and international solidarity. From the point of view of “party members go first, the country and villages follow” [9, p. 546] and “internal force is decisive”, Ho Chi Minh's unity strategy “follows” the logical order: unity in the Party to national unit and international unity. As Chairman of the Party, President and international leader for a lifetime of dedication to the world Communist movement, Ho Chi Minh successfully implemented the strategy of solidarity and became the soul of that unity bloc. The combination of benevolent and tolerant nature such as the inheritance of national cultural traditions and communist humanitarianism, the spirit of Marxist tolerance has created Ho Chi Minh's tolerance culture in politics. That culture has been clearly showed in Ho Chi Minh's perspective of how to implement the solidarity strategy, in his conduct with the objects that need to be united in each specific scale. 104 Chuyên san Khoa học Xã hội và Nhân văn First of all, Ho Chi Minh tried to build a unity bloc in the Party. He thought that with the role of the national leadership force and the best way of leadership is to set an example, the unity in the Party plays the “nucleus” role of the great national unity bloc and is a condition for implementing the international unity strategy. According to Ho Chi Minh, our Party has many people, but when attacking, it is only like one person. In order to do so, the basic thing is that the communists “must have comradeship to love one another” [9, p. 611] and tolerance. It is because the Party is an organization of specific people with common points about ideals, goals and particular points about psychology, habits, and personality. Therefore, if you do not have a tolerant and generous heart, do not know how to act on the principle of “using the common to restrict the individual”, you cannot truly unite. During his lifetime, Ho Chi Minh always asked the communist to be strict with him, "even to fix one’s mistakes" but "to forgive each one” [3, p.280]. Since every human being has good and evil in his heart, the Party has good and bad people, right and wrong doings, unity must promote self-criticism and criticism but criticism must be with constructing spirit, “to help each other fix and help each other make progress”. The key is to modify the way works for the better and righter. The key is solidarity and internal unity” [6, p. 272]. To do so, you must criticize with a clear mind, do not use sarcasm, bitterness, stab or turn criticism into offensive and personal revenge. He also advised cadres not to fight against individualism on behalf of individualism, to remove their personal interests, to abolish the noble ego and the necessary self-esteem and confidence of every human being. Ho Chi Minh said that unity is not only a “will of the Party” but also “heart of people”, an objective requirement of the masses themselves in the struggle for liberation because if they do not unite, we will fall into a status “scattered chopsticks”, and the public itself will always fail in the struggle for their own rights. The role of the Party at this time is to convert the natural and spontaneous needs of the masses into the need for self-discipline by developing and implementing a strategy of great national unity. The great national unity in Ho Chi Minh's perspective is the great unity of all people, that is, regardless of class, gender, age, religion, ethnic group, party, etc. The reality shows: The strategy of great unity among the people is not easily implemented due to barriers of class, religion, ethnicity and party. To remove those “boundaries”, Ho Chi Minh asked the revolutionaries to take kindness and tolerance and generosity towards people because “every human being has good and evil in his heart. We must know how to make the good parts of each person blossom like spring flowers and the bad ones fade away; that is the attitude of the revolutionaries” [9, p. 672], “There are only two classes of people who do not have defects: a baby in the womb and a dead man who was put into a coffin” [8, p. 335]. Cadres must respect and evoke the good so that the good in each person will bloom like spring flowers and the bad will fade away. In order to build a great bloc of national unity, the revolutionaries must also tolerate those who used to have different political views and used to go on other paths. It can be said that Ho Chi Minh is an exemplary model of appreciating talents. When using talented people, he attaches great importance to his talents at work, takes a measure of spirit for the people and for the country, rather than being narrow-minded or unresponsive to being inside or outside the Party. After the success of the August Revolution, as the President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam Government, President Ho Chi Minh was well aware of the position and role of talented people in the cause of construction and protection of the revolutionary government and resistance to national construction. Therefore, in the article “Finding talented people” in the National Salvation newspaper