Unit 4 - Environment

At the end of this unit, students will be able to: • Use vocabulary relating to the topic (features of environment, environmental problems, green issues). • Pronounce sound link and stress within word families • Develop listening, reading and speaking skills via practical exercises relating to this topic.

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91 Unit 4: Environment ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 UNIT OBJECTIVES ENVIRONMENT At the end of this unit, students will be able to: • Use vocabulary relating to the topic (features of environment, environmental problems, green issues). • Pronounce sound link and stress within word families • Develop listening, reading and speaking skills via practical exercises relating to this topic. OVERVIEW DURATION (12 PERIODS) WARMING UP • How green are you? • Activities that help to protect our environment GRAMMAR • Passive voice • Changing from active to pas- sive voice VOCABULARY Vocabulary about environment PRONUNCIATION • Sound link • Stress within word families LISTENING • Medical plants • Recycling READING • Are you SAD? • Save the elephants SPEAKING • Threats to our environment • Saving the environment KEY WRITING • Save the dolphins • Save the elephants fund. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 92 Unit 4: Environment If you want to save the planet, ecology begins at home- try this quiz and see how environmentally aware you are. Which form of household heating is generally considered most environmentally- friendly? a. electric b. coal c. wood d. natural gas Which household appliance consumes the most electricity? a. freezer c. television b. electric cooker d. washing machine If you leave your TV on “stand- by”- switched on but with no picture or sound- how much electricity will you use? a. 5% b. 10% c. 20% In which room do you use most water? a. kitchen b. bathroom c. laundry Which of the following is a renewable resource? a. oil b. iron ore c. trees d. coal Which of the following household materials is considered hazardous waste? a. plastic packaging b. glass c. batteries d. food What happens to most household waste after it leaves the home? It is... a. buried b. burned c. recycled How long would it take for Americans to throw away enough rubbish to fill a line of trucks reaching the moon? a. 2 years b. 10 years c. 100 years How much of your life will you spend opening and reading junk mail? a. 2 weeks b. 1 month c. 8 months You can save one tree by recycling a pile of newspapers that is how tall? a. 1m b. 5m c. 10m ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 A. How green are you? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 93 Unit 4: Environment PASSIVE VOICE FORM We form the passive voice with the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle of the main verb. ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 B. Tick () the activity that help to protect our environment No. Activity 1. Plant trees 2. Hunt animals 3. Recycle waste 4. Donate money to protect endangered animals 5. Go to work by private cars 6. Use public vehicles such as bus, underground S + to be + Past participle (PII) TENSES POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION Simple present S + am/is/are + (PII) Example: Rice is grown in China S + am/is/are + not + (PII) Example: Rice isn’t grown in China Am/Is/Are + S + (PII)? Example: Is rice grown in China? Present continuous S + am/is/are + being + (PII) Example: The patients are being examined right now. S + am/is/are + not + being + (PII) Example: The patients aren’t being examined right now. Am/Is/Are + S + being + (PII)? Example: Are the patients being examined right now? Simple past S + was/were + (PII) Example: This photograph was taken last summer. S + was/were + not + (PII) Example: This photograph wasn’t taken last summer. Was/Were + S + (PII)? Example: Was this photo- graph taken last summer? Past continuous S + was/were + being + (PII) Example: The letter was being typed when I arrived. S + was/were + not + being + (PII) Example: The letter wasn’t being typed when I arrived. Was/Were + S + being + (PII) ? Example: Was the letter being typed when I aiirived? 1 94 Unit 4: Environment USES We use the passive voice: • To emphasize the action rather than the person who did it (the agent). Example: The new library was built last year. • When we don’t know who did the action. Example: The window was broken last night. • When it is easy to understand who did the action. Example: Three people were taken to the hospital after the crash. CHANGING FROM ACTIVE TO PASSIVE VOICE We change a sentence from active to passive voice in the following way: • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. • We use the verb to be in the same form as the verb in the active sentence. • We use the past participle of the main verb in the active sentence. • We use the word by if we want to say who performed the action. ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 TENSES POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION Present perfect S + has/have + been + (PII) Example: All the deci- sions have been made. S + has/have + not + been + (PII) Example: All the decisions haven’t been made. Has/Have + S + been + (PII)? Example: Have all the de- cisions been made? Past perfect S + had + been + (PII) Example: By the time we arrived, all the seats had been taken. S + had + not + been + (PII) Example: By the time we arrived, all the seats hadn’t been taken. Had + S + been + (PII)? Example: By the time we arrived, had all the seats been taken? Future with Will S + will + be + (PII)) Example: The emails will be sent as soon as possible. S + will + not + be + (PII) Example: The emails won’t sent. Will + S + be + (PII)? Example: Will the emails be sent? Future perfect S + will + have + been + (PII) Example: The work will have been done by tomorrow. S + will + have + not + been + (PII) Example: The work won’t have been done by tomorrow. Will + S + have + been + (PII) ? Example: Will the work have been done by tomorrow? Modal verbs S + must/ can/ could, etc + be +(PII) Example: Meat must be kept in the refrigerator. S + must/ can/ could, etc + not + be +(PII) Example: Meat mustn’t be kept in the refrigerator. Must/ Can/ Could, etc + S + be +(PII)? Example: Must meat be kept in the refrigerator? 2 95 Unit 4: Environment Example: Active sentence: Carlos designs the building. S V O Passive sentence: The building is designed by Carlos. S V (PII) O PRACTICE Decide whether the sentences are written in Active or Passive Change the following sentences from the active to the passive. 1. They grow coffee in Kenya. → ………………………………………………………………….. 2 . They publish The Times newspaper in London. → ………………………………………………………………….. 3. They make shoes in Calatayud. →………………………………………………………………….. ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 Notes: We usually include by + the agent only if it is important to the meaning of the sentence. Example: The glass was broken by Ann. (by Ann emphasizes that Ann did the action, not someone else). Rice is grown in the field by farmers. (by farmers is not important to the meaning of the sentence, so it can be crossed out) 1 No. Active Passive 1. They listen to music. 2. She is reading an e-mail. 3. These cars are produced in Japan. 4. Alan teaches Geography. 5. German is spoken in Austria. 6. Lots of houses were destroyed by the earthquake. 7. Henry Ford invented the assembly line. 8. The bus driver was hurt. 9. You should open your workbooks. 10. Houses have been built. 2 96 Unit 4: Environment 4. They transport oranges from Valencia to Germany in special crates. → ………………………………………………………………… 5. They are sending the parcel by sea. → ……………………………………………………………….. 6. They are destroying the forests in Indonesia. → ………………………………………………………………… 7. The shark ate the man. →…………………………………………………………………. 8. The arsonist started the fire. →…………………………………………………………………. 9. The police took him away. →…………………………………………………………………. 10. They've treated him very well. →…………………………………………………………………. 11. They haven't cleaned the kitchen yet. →…………………………………………………………………. 12. They didn't punish him for what he did. → ………………………………………………………………… Choose the best answer 1. Ms. Laura ……………………at the Asia Company. a. is employing c. employing b. employed d. is employed 2. I still can’t believe it! My bicycle …………….last night. a. was stolen c. stolen b. was stealing d. steal 3. Something funny ……………….in class yesterday. a. happened c. happens b. was happened d. is happened 4. The child’s arm was swollen because he ………………...by a bee. a. stung c. had been stung b. had stung d. has been stung 5. Today many serious childhood diseases ……………...by early immunization. a. are preventing c. prevent b. can prevent d. can be prevented 6. I ………………with you on that subject. a. am agreed c. agreeing b. am agreeing d. agree 7. When …………………….? - In 1928. a. did penicillin discover c. did penicillin discovered b. penicillin was discovered d. was penicillin discovered 8. Vitamin C …………………..by the human body. It gets into the blood stream quickly. a. absorbs easily c. is easily absorbed b. is easily absorbing d. absorbed easily 9. When can I have my car back? I think it’ll …………………...late this afternoon. a. finish c. have finished b. be finished d. be finish ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 3 97 Unit 4: Environment 10. The rescuers…………….for their bravery and fortitude in locating the lost mountain climbers. a. were praised c. were praising b. praised d. praising 11. The longest fish in the contest was eighteen inches long. It…………..by Thelma Rivers. a. was catching c. was caught b. caught d. catch 12. Are we about to have dinner? Yes, it ……………...in the dining room. a. is serving c. is being served b. serves d. served 13. Where are Jack and Jan? They ……………..the boxes you asked for into the house. a. have been bringing c. have been brought b. bringing d. to bring 14. Where’s the old chicken coop? - It ………………..by the windstorm last year. a. destroy c. was destroyed b. is destroyed d. destroyed 15. We’re still looking for Thomas. Hasn’t he………………………yet? a. been found c. found b. to find d. being found 16. Diana is a wonderful ballet dancer. She ……………..since she was four. a. has been dancing c. is dancing b. has been danced d. was danced 17. What a beautiful dress you’re wearing! - Thank you. It ……….especially for me by a French tailor. a. is made c. made b. has made d. was made 18. Gold …………………..in California in the nineteenth century. a. was discovered c. was discover b. has been discovered d. they discover 19. All planes………………...before departure. a. will check c. will be checked b. will has checked d. will been checked 20. Where did you get these old dresses? We ………………...them in the old trunk. a. were found c. found b. finding d. have been found 21. I wanted ……………by the head of the company, but it was impossible. a. to see c. seeing b. to be seen d. being to seen 22. Those eggs of different colors are very artistic. Yes, they ……………...in Russia. a. were painted c. were painting b. were paint d. painted 23. I heard you decided to take up tennis. Yes, I have …………….every day. a. been played c. playing b. been playing d. play ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 98 Unit 4: Environment 24. What happened to the old maid carrier? He ………...to the neighborhood to work. a. has sent c. was sent b. was sent d. sent Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets 1. You (notify) ………………by my secretary next week. 2. Last night I (not, remember) ………………….to lock my front door. 3. At the present time, the oldest in the town (restore) ………..by the Historical Society. 4. At one time, the entire world (rule) …………………….by dinosaurs. Some dinosaurs (walk) ………………on their hind legs and (stand) ……………….as tall as palm trees. 5. Disneyland, a world famous amusement park in Southern (visit) …………………by more than ten million people every year. 6. Most insects (live) …….……………...for less than a year. The common housefly (live) ……….……………..from 19 to 30 days. 7. I got into a taxi quickly because I (follow) ………………………….by two strange men. As soon as I got into the taxi, I (feel) …………………a little safer. 8. When Alex was ten only, his father (die) …………………….. 9. Mark (influence) ………………………..a lot by his friends. 10. The exam papers are scored by machine. The students (tell) ……………………their results next week. Can you answer the following general knowledge questions about the enviroment? 1. What is the highest mountain in Africa? 2. What is the longest river in Europe? 3. Where is the highest waterfall in the world? 4. Name another country, apart from Iceland, which has geysers and hot springs. 5. What is a delta and which famous river has one? 6. Where are the Straits of Gibraltar and the Cape of Good Hope? • There are many different words referring to features of the enviroment. Here are some arranged on small to large scales. Brook → stream → river Hillock → hill → mountain Cove → bay → gulf Copse → wood → forest Puddle → pond → lake Footpath → lane → road • Here are some other nouns which are useful when talking about the enviroment. Check their meanings with a dictionary if necessary. Where land meets sea: coast/shore/beach/estuary/cliff/cape/peninsula Words connected with rivers: source/tributary/waterfall/mouth/valley/gorge Words connected with mountains: foot/ridge/peak/summi/glacier ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 3 A. Environment quiz B. Features of the environment 99 Unit 4: Environment Complete the paragraph below about your country, or any other country that interests you. Remember to use ‘the’ whenever it is necessary. …………… (1) is a …………… (2) in …………… (3). The countryside is …………… (4) in the north and …………… (5) in the south. The country’s economy is based on …………… (6). The best-known river in …………… (7) is …………… (8). The most famous chain of mountains is ………....…… (9) and the highest mountain in that chain is …………… (10). …………… (11) is a major enviromental problem in …………… (12) today. What word matches these definitions? The first letter is given in brackets. Example: A valley with steep sides, gorge Give two nouns from the opposite page to go with the adjectives below. Try not to repeat any of the nouns you choose. Example: sandy beach/shore 1. sandy 2. steep 3. shallow 4. rocky 5. turbulent 6. dangerous What are the opposites of the adjectives below? 1. a deep river 3. a rocky beach 5. an extinct volcano 2. a gentle slope 4. a rough sea There are many enviromental problems in the world today. Check with a dictionary if you do not know any of the terms below. air river sea pollution overfishing the greenhouse effect the destruction of the ozone layer destruction of the rainforests battery farming waste disposal overpopulation Match the pictures with the correct environmental problems above. ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 1 2 3 4 1. A very large sea. (o) 6. A river of ice. (g) 2. Land with sea on all sides. (i) 7. The top of a mountain. (s) 3. Where a river meets the sea. (m) 8. Where land meets sea very steeply. (c) 4. A river that flows into another river. (t) 9. A small stream. (b) 5. Where a river starts. (s) 10. Land with sea on 3 sides. (p) C. Environmental problems 100 Unit 4: Environment Match the pictures with the correct environmental problems above. Complete the tables Use the words in the box to complete this text about enviromental problems. conditions destruction disposal farming greenhouse heavily layer over-fishing over-polluted polluted resources Pollution is a major problem of our times. Air, water and land are all polluted. Poor waste (1)....……… is to blame for many of the problems and the situation is particularly acute in (2)...……….. industrialised and (3)………….. regions. Pollution of the atmosphere has led to the destruction of the ozone (4)…………….. and to the (5) …….. effect. Other enviromental problems have been caused by too rapid a use of (6) ………. There are far fewer fish in the sea because of (7)…….. and the (8)……….. of the rainforests is having unforeseen ecological consequenses. Battery (9) ……… provides a lot of food but involves keeping animals in un- natural and unhealthy (10) …………… ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 1 2 3 a b c d e f g h Noun Verb Noun Verb Waste ............................... ................................... Protect Pollution ............................... ................................... Destroy Damage ............................... ................................... survive 101 Unit 4: Environment Complete the sentences below using words from the box. acid alternative fossil greenhouse ozone layer pollution public rainforest recycling solar species warming 1. The tropical rain forest is being cut down. 2. By ........................ glass, metal and paper, we save energy. 3 Scientists have detected holes in the ........................, which will allow harmful radiation to reach the surface of the Earth. 4. Some gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, causing the so-called ‘ ...............effect’. 5. One result of global ........................ is likely to be a disastrous rise in sea levels. 6. Heavy industry causes a great deal of air ......................... 7. Solar energy and wind energy are sometimes called ‘........................’ energy because they are used instead of coal, oil and gas. 8. ........................ panels use the sun’s energy to heat water. 9. Human activity has destroyed many animal ........................ 10. People still prefer their own cars to ........................ transport. 11. Coal, oil and gas are known as ........................ fuels. 12. Damage has been caused to forests by ........................ rain. If we want to look after the enviroment, there are certain things we shouldn’t do and certain things we should do. Complete these sentences with suitable verbs. Example: We shouldn’t 1. throw away paper, bottles and cans; we should……………………… them. 2. ……………. water and energy; we should ……………………… them. 3. ……………….. rainforests; we should ………………. them from human damage. How green are you? Give each item in the quiz a number from 1 – 5. 1=always 2=often 3=sometimes 4=hardly ever 5=never ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 4 5 1 D. Green issues HOW GREEN ARE YOU? ............................ 1. Avoid throwing things away if they can be reused, repaired or recycles ............................ 2. Use recycled paper ............................ 3. Recycle paper, glass and cans ............................ 4. Avoid products from nonrenewable sources ............................ 5. Avoid buying overpackaged products 102 Unit 4: Environment Add up the numbers from the quiz above. The interpretation of your quiz score is: Energy Based on the pictures, fill the missing words in the chart below. What are nonrenewable and renewable energy? ENG103_Bai 4_v1.0010112202 HOW GREEN ARE YOU? ............................ 6. Walk or use a bike when traveling shot distances ............................ 7. Use public transportation when traveling long distances ............................ 8. Avoid using the air-conditioning in the summer ............................ 9. Make sure the heat isn’t turned up too high in the winter ............................ 10. Use low-energy light bulbs ............................ 11. Turn off the lights when you leave a room ............................ 12. Avoid using more water than you need Score 12-23 You’re so green, it’s unbelievable! Are there even more things you do to protect the environment? 24-35 You’re very environmentally aware. You care about and respect the world around you. 36-47 You do some things to protect the environment, but there’s always room for improvement. 48-60 You’re not green at all. Be aware of the things you can do and try. Everything you do will help. 2 ………………… ENERGY ………………… ENERGY ............................. ............................. Water Nonrenewable Biomass Oil Geo
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