Using Dong Ho folk paintings in values education for preschool children

Abstract. The paper presents requirements on the goals, contents, methods of value education for young children and the artistic characteristics of Dong Ho folk paintings. After a brief review of the situation of using Dong Ho folk paintings and Vietnam traditional artworks in preschool educational activities, the article presents necessary solutions and pedagogical skills to help preschool teachers incorporate Dong Ho folk paintings in value education for preschool children.

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89 HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Educational Sciences, 2020, Volume 64, Issue 4B, pp. 89-97 This paper is available online at USING DONG HO FOLK PAINTINGS IN VALUES EDUCATION FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN Vu Thanh Van Faculty of Early Childhood Education - Hanoi National University of Education Abstract. The paper presents requirements on the goals, contents, methods of value education for young children and the artistic characteristics of Dong Ho folk paintings. After a brief review of the situation of using Dong Ho folk paintings and Vietnam traditional artworks in preschool educational activities, the article presents necessary solutions and pedagogical skills to help preschool teachers incorporate Dong Ho folk paintings in value education for preschool children. Keywords: Dong Ho folk paintings, values education, preschool children. 1. Introduction The development of countries in the current trend of global integration poses for education the task of fostering and forming a younger generation not only intellectually developing but also having a healthy emotional life and able to learn social values to develop comprehensively. Education is considered as an intermediary field. It’s a way to bring values into cultures to set new values for society. On the contrary, art and culture are the treasures that store and preserve priceless values. They are very lively means to help educators convey the values to the younger generation and the social community. Using visual arts, especially the traditional visual arts in the education of children in general and value education, in particular has been of interest to many researchers. When discussing this issue, author Le Thi Thanh Thuy highly appreciated Vietnamese traditional visual arts, considering it an invaluable cultural heritage that has helped generations of the Vietnamese realize, appreciate, preserve the past and the values of the nation. According to her, traditional art products created by the intellectual - emotional crystallization and human ‘s creative works will be a source of “nutrients” to flourish and nurture in young children love, love of homeland, love of life,... through familiar content and simple expression of the artworks that scientific insights to human concepts of heaven and earth, of the good - evil, beauty- ugliness will enter the child's mind softly; ethical standards – aesthetics, as well as the cause-and-effect mentality of the nation will gradually penetrate into children, creating a foundation for personal development [1]. In recent years, further researches on the application of arts in early childhood education in Faculty of Early Childhood Education-Hanoi National University of Education (by Le Thi Thanh Thuy, Vu Thanh Van, etc) [1,2] has shown that Vietnamese traditional visual art products are diverse in both content and form with unique expressive styles, which can contribute to creating a rich educational and teaching environment, friendly and really “imbued with national identity”. Received April 11, 2020. Revised April 24, 2020. Accepted May 15, 2020. Contact Vu Thanh Van, e-mail address: Vu Thanh Van 90 The study of exploiting the educational value of traditional arts in Vietnam needs to be carried out more thoroughly in order to contribute to the search for renovating education, improving educational efficiency for the sake and comprehensive development in children. However, at this time there is no research on using Dong Ho folk paintings in value education for preschool children. Among traditional Vietnamese arts, Dong Ho folk paintings are very attractive to children. It is suitable for the awareness, affection and motor skills of preschool children. We choose to do applied research issues in aesthetic-ethical emotional education, value education for preschool children. Other researches on Dong Ho folk paintings as a cultural heritage by the authors Nguyen Kim Than (2017), Nguyen Thi Thu Hoa (2019), An Chuong (1996), Trang Thanh Hien (2019), Maurice Durand (2018), Nguyen Ba Van (2001) will be cultural bases for the research and application of valuable education for children. 2. Content 2.1. Requirements on goals, content and methods of values education for children Values do not appear by themselves, they should be taught to children when they are at preschool age. When discussing the orientation of value education for children in a family, Author Truong Quan Lam said “Value is what people consider important, necessary and meaningful in historical social conditions” and according to him “value education is a purposeful activity, with the content and method of the educator, in order to form in the educated person the thoughts and behaviors that the educator deems important, necessary, meaningful in specific social and historical conditions “ [8]. Values can be taught in all stages, different periods of human life, but value education is highly effective when taught in preschool, because this is the stage where the early basis of personality is under construction. - Value educational target for children: Along with the aim to educate children, many researchers around the world have participated in the Living values Education (LVE) program. According to Tillman. DG et al, the purpose of LVE is to provide principles and guide tools for the integral development of human beings such as: (1) Help individuals understand different values and the practical meaning of expressing them in relation to oneself, to others, to the community and to the world at large; (2) Provide individuals with in-depth knowledge, understanding, motivations, and responsibilities related to making positive choices for individuals and societies; (3) Engage and inspire individuals to discover, experience, express and choose their personal, social, ethical and spiritual values and be aware of practical methods to develop values; (4) Encourage and support educators and caregivers to see education as a way of providing children with a philosophy of life, thereby enabling development and choice for children to integrate with the community with respect, confidence and purpose [9], [14]. - Contents of values that need teaching to young children: The core values and the value- based educational methods for children in general and preschool children are brought to the national education of the countries by UNICEF & UNESCO. Project “Sharing values for a better world” and the program “Living Values Education”, supported by UNESCO and the UNICEF Committee, held in schools around the world, includes the following values: Peace; Respect; Love; Responsibility; Happy; Co-operation; Honesty; Modesty; Tolerance; Homely; Union; Freedom. In the Preschool Education Program of Vietnam, the above values are integrated into the educational content of the subjects that aim to shape the preschoolers’ respect and love for their grandparent, their mothers, their teachers; their sisters and brothers, their friends. Moreover, it Using Dong Ho folk paintings in values education for preschool children 91 helps preschoolers be honest, confident, beauty-seeking; curious, love for school, nature and homeland. - Methods of values education for children When children are born, they are surrounded by values as a role to guide the development of children in a specific culture and society. In the process of socialization, children's moral foundation will be built through a close living environment, through what is seen, heard, experienced and felt from society, through events, relationships and through social system, especially through traditional cultural and artistic products. The methods of values education can be flexibly determined depending on the young child's circumstances and characteristics. Diane G. Tillman has given suggestions on the basic way to value education for children: - Values-based Atmosphere - Values Stimulus - Living Values Education Activities - Set a good example of values - Creative expression - Skill Development - Integrating values in life - Bringing in your Values of the Culture [10]. The valuable educational approaches that Tillman suggests will be feasible and appropriate for the Early Childhood Education Program if implemented with active assistance in various forms of artistic activities. The basic requirements of Vietnamese preschool education program are generally consistent between the content of education in schools and children's real-life experiences, gradually preparing children to integrate into life. With a variety of educational methods, values can be selected and included in the national pre-school education program through many educational fields such as Music, Visual Arts, Literature, Examination, Science - Fun activities, Play, etc along with many teaching facilities, toys, notably works of art. 2.2. Artistic characteristics of Dong Ho folk paintings Dong Ho Village with its famous paintings has become an aesthetic symbol in Vietnam Culture. Dong Ho Paintings is a kind of Vietnamese folk painting originating in Dong Ho Village, Song Ho Commune, Thuan Thanh District, Bac Ninh Province. Dong Ho paintings are lively descriptions of the beauty of the countryside and traditional customs and festivals. Dong Ho paintings are printed on Dzo paper, which is made from powder of Dzo tree. Dong Ho paintings are unique in their color and printing paper. The paper made from the bark of Dzo tree is thin, soft, spongy, and absorbent and coated with sea bivalve mollusk powder, a special kind of coating, to create a bright and slightly glittering background. Artists use pine leave brushes to coat Dzo paper with sea bivalve mollusk powder to create a sparkling colorful background. Colors of the painting are refined from various kinds of tree leaves, which craftsman can easily find in Vietnam: burnt bamboo leaves for black, cajuput leaves for green, copper rust for blue, pine resin for amber, and crushed eggshells mixed with paste for white. Dong Ho folk paintings feature 180 topics in some main categories: worshipping, history, blessings, daily use and storytelling. Topics of the paintings include people’s daily activities and production. They portray legendary characters, landscapes, and activities that imply wishes for happiness, wealth, bumper crops and effective husbandry. Expressive content of paintings: There are some main types of paintings in Dong Ho painting: Congratulation paintings (“Carp”, “Good luck wish, Hen family”, “Vinh Hoa, Ceremony”, “Humanity”, etc); historical paintings (“Quang Trung King”, “Soldier”, “Ba Trieu Vu Thanh Van 92 rode on elephant”, “Trung Trac-Trung Nhi”, etc); worshipping paintings (“God of Fortune”, “Thien At-Vu Dinh”, etc.); proverbial paintings (“Making a scene of jealousy”, “Catching coconuts”, “Teacher Toad”, “Mouse wedding”, etc); landscape paintings and daily activities paintings (“Buffalo fighting, Scene of wrestling”, “Boy sitting on a buffalo and playing flute”, etc). With simple visual language, clear images, the topics described in Dong Ho paintings are often close to people's daily life, reflecting their dreams and aspirations for full and happy life which makes it easy to enter people's hearts and make a deep impression. - Educational role of Dong Ho Folk Painting Dong Ho folk paintings faithfully reflect daily life, village affection, pleasures, festivals, proud historical events and desires, wishes happiness, prosperity and peace for the people in the tranquil countryside. The content of the painting is also meant to encourage patriotism, evoke love for productive labor, appreciate the beauty and criticize bad habits etc. Dong Ho folk paintings contain within themselves the social values summarized in a long history, handed down from generation to generation. The linguistic characteristics of Dong Ho folk paintings are simple and genuine because of their innocence, playfulness, humor, and understandability, but they involve a very attractive beauty, especially for small children. Watching Dong Ho paintings, children like to find a common voice, find intimacy and intimacy. By the traditional cultural beauty conveyed through lines, colors, rustic shapes, unique materials and colors, Dong Ho folk paintings can become a valuable education that gives children the quintessence of the mind and soul of a nation. [6] Good luck wish Boy sitting on a buffalo and playing flute 2.3. Overview of the situation of researching and using Dong Ho folk paintings in kindergartens - Researchers about the importance of researching and using Dong Ho folk paintings in early childhood education Researchers in many countries have long been interested in the link between human development and regional culture and national arts. H.Read, J.Deway, L.S.Vygotsky, R. Schirrmacher has considered art as cultural tools in educating children and urged educators to integrate art forms, incorporate traditions and values from diverse cultures into educational programs for young children [11]. Author Le Thi Thanh Thuy also asserted that using art products and art activities to learn and preserve the cultural beauty of ethnic communities is a unique, inspiring and bright way of thinking. This cognitive mode is completely suitable for the process of educating children right from the preschool age (under 6 years old) because this is the golden age of artistic activities and the age at which intellect and emotions children's emotions are developed primarily based on vivid, close, colorful visual images [1]. Using Dong Ho folk paintings in values education for preschool children 93 According to the above views, the study and use of Dong Ho folk paintings in early childhood education should be concerned and prioritized. As a cultural heritage of Vietnam, Dong Ho folk paintings are important in creating an interesting learning environment, helping young children to absorb the good values that previous generations created. Educating children about moral values through Dong Ho folk paintings will create many opportunities for children to experience positively in the socio-cultural environment. The funny and easy-to-understand images in Dong Ho folk paintings are very beautiful, interesting, attracting young children, quite suitable for aesthetic feelings, creating favorable conditions for children in their perception of value. - The situation of using Dong Ho folk paintings in educational activities in kindergarten Survey results of 200 preschool teachers (Number of respondents/ n=200) in 2018 (in 5 provinces: Hanoi, Vinh Phuc, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Hai Duong) show that preschool teachers are less interested in using folk paintings in education activities (Table 1) Table 1. The level of using traditional art products in kindergarten (Number of respondents: n=200) No Traditional shaping products Usage level (%) Regularly Sometimes Not yet 1 Folklore paintings 0 15 85 2 Ceramic craft 10 39 51 3 Rattan, bamboo products 9 27 64 4 Embroidery products 0 8 92 5 Handmade embroidery 0 9 91 6 To-he 0 10 90 7 Folk toys 5 95 0 8 Carving products 0 1 99 9 Lacquer products 0 2 98 10 Other handicrafts 0 8 92 Findings from15% of the respondents have acknowledged “The use of folk paintings in preschool education”: - Type of folk paintings used in kindergarten: 100% respondents (30 preschool teachers) have used Dong Ho painting (never used folk paintings of Hang Trong, Lang Sinh, Kim Hoang paintings, ...); - Purpose of using Dong Ho painting: Used to decorate the classroom (26,6%), used as toys (13,3%), teaching aids for the surrounding environment (50%), literature (16,6%), visual arts (23,3%) and serving ceremonies festival (10%). - Methods of using Dong Ho paintings: Observe real paintings, observe photographs of paintings, observe Dong Ho pictures through computers, describe what is drawn in pictures, Conversation, Questions and answers about pictures in pictures, Storytelling by pictures, Display. The above research results show that, like many types of traditional Vietnamese artworks and crafts, Dong Ho folk paintings are rarely present in the surveyed kindergartens. Causes of this situation are listed as followed: - Preschool teachers rarely use folk paintings and Dong Ho paintings - Using Dong Ho folk paintings in teaching is new, teachers are not able to organize themselves; Vu Thanh Van 94 - Teachers have not seen the importance of traditional arts in early childhood education - Conditions for organizing educational activities for children to get acquainted with folk art in preschools are limited; - Teachers are not trained in art so they do not know how to exploit folk paintings in education. - Teachers are familiar with familiar, prescribed and modern teaching aids. - Teachers do not have enough time and to equip traditional money art products in the classroom. The wishes of preschool teachers related to the application of traditional arts in education: - The trend of international integration will make the whole society pay more attention to national culture and education of cultural heritage for children; - Economic development, the development of craft villages will create many favorable conditions for educating children about arts and culture; - Teachers will be interested in regular fostering of art knowledge, visual skills and educational methods through art. - The economic life will be improved so that preschools can invest, equip traditional art products and create a traditional cultural environment for children; - Parents will be more interested and more enthusiastic in cooperating with teachers in exploiting folk arts to educate their children 2.4. Solutions to using Dong Ho folk paintings in values education for preschool children Although the organization for children to get acquainted with traditional arts in general and Dong Ho folk painting in education is not popular in preschools. However, according to the requirements of value education, comprehensive education for children, based on the current situation and educational conditions in preschools and families, several organizational solutions can be used Dong Ho folk paintings: a) Research on cognitive characteristics of preschool children: Determining the cognitive ways of young children plays a very important role in determining the effectiveness of children's education through art. Visual perception serves as the first channel for young children to receive, filter and interpret visual information. In the process of learning through pictures, the basic aspects of young children's cognition such as visual communication, visual thinking and visual knowledge are formed and active based on the development of visual perception. At preschool age, the efficiency of information processing through images should always be accompanied by words. Spoken language (verbal language) combined with visual symbol systems will assist children in the development of knowledge, forming concepts of values and understanding the meaning of the ethical values expressed through images. The intuitive cognitive characteristics are very developed in young children, which shows that increasing the observation of artistic images in the process of educating children is a very appropriate and effective teaching method. Learning through aesthetic visual images in folk paintings with lively introductions is not simply a process of receiving ordinary information, this is the search and discovery of information. Consisten
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