Applying some points of behavioral theories of burrhus frederic skinner and albert bandura to determine some teaching-skills training methods for geography teacher-students

Abstract.This article refers to the application of the main points of behavioral theories by B.F. Skinner and A. Bandura in determining some Teacher/Training skills methods for Geography teacher-students. The first training method is based on applying the direct reinforcement and the formula of Stimulation - reinforcement - repeated behavior of B.F. Skinner and the manner of learning through observation to create substitutional reinforcements of A. Bandura. The second training method is based on using the manner of imitating the behavior models of A. Bandura. If these methods are used, it may make good efficiency in the training teaching-skills process because these methods are based on very clear behavioral theories. Keywords: teaching skills, teaching skills training method.

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JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF HNUE 2011, Vol. 56, N◦. 1, pp. 101-106 APPLYING SOME POINTS OF BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER AND ALBERT BANDURA TO DETERMINE SOME TEACHING-SKILLS TRAINING METHODS FOR GEOGRAPHY TEACHER-STUDENTS Tran Thi Thanh Thuy Hanoi National University of Education E-mail: thuyppdl@gmail.com Abstract.This article refers to the application of the main points of be- havioral theories by B.F. Skinner and A. Bandura in determining some Teacher/Training skills methods for Geography teacher-students. The first training method is based on applying the direct reinforcement and the for- mula of Stimulation - reinforcement - repeated behavior of B.F. Skinner and the manner of learning through observation to create substitutional rein- forcements of A. Bandura. The second training method is based on using the manner of imitating the behavior models of A. Bandura. If these meth- ods are used, it may make good efficiency in the training teaching-skills process because these methods are based on very clear behavioral theories. Keywords: teaching skills, teaching skills training method. 1. Introduction In all universities of education, teaching/training-skills for students has an important role. There are many teaching-skills training methods used in the Ge- ography Faculty in Hanoi National University of Education. However, only when these training methods are based on applying achievements of psychology an edu- cational science basically, we can make an unshakable basis to form teaching-skills for students. In this article, we will suggest some teaching-skills training methods for Geography teacher-students which are based on the psychology basis of Burrhus Frederic Skinner (B.F. Skinner) and Albert Bandura (A. Bandura). 2. Content 2.1. Concept and teaching-skills classification According to Vietnam encyclopedias dictionary Skill is the intermediate stage between knowledge and stuff in mastering action process. Characteristics of the process require the highest attention, the tight control vision, the action may be extensive and rudimentary. This skill is formed by training or by imitating [7]. But according to Pham Viet Vuong Skill is the ability to do successfully a type of work based on applying of knowledge and experiences that relate to the work [6;17] . 101 Tran Thi Thanh Thuy Thus, we can see that skills are closely related to the capacity, they are some parts of capacity. They are actions, rather than intellectuality. Any skills include symbols, concepts, knowledge, cognitive skills, thought and action skills. Teaching skills are special skills. Many authors have given the definitions of teaching skills such as Merrill (1971), Komisar (1966), BK Passi (1976), Menon (1984)... However, we found that the definition given by McIntyre and White is more accurate than these others: Teaching skills are a set of teaching behaviors of teachers in the interaction-classroom environment towards doing the teaching goals successfully [3]. From the definition above, we know that teaching-skills are a set of complex operations and actions which teachers make in classroom to achieve education goals. Because of the complexity of teaching-skills, to form these skills for students we must have scientific training methods and students should be patient, self-aware and positive. The teaching-skills training has also been supported by facilities, classrooms etc... 3. Applying some psychology points of B.F. Skinner and A. Bandura to determine some training teaching-methods for Geography teacher-students 3.0.1. Applying some points of the behavioral theory of B.F.Skinner B.F.Skinner was a psychologist in the middle-end of 20th century. He was very famous in the artifact behavior theory. Skinner said that both animals and humans have 3 types of actions: non-conditional behaviors (based on inborn-reflects), con- ditional behaviors (based on conditional reflects) and artifact behaviors [6;127-128]. The artifact behaviors are formed from previous behaviors, to be impacted from environment and to be reinforced directly. This reinforcement is stimulus. In the artifact behaviors, the own factors play an important role. In the artifact behaviors’ characteristics, we would like to mention the formula of testing wrongly. Teaching methods are based on this formula which repeats all behaviors that have correct results and removes all behaviors that have incorrect results. This is a mechanism to the formula of testing - wrong. Reinforcement is an important factor in the process of forming artifact behav- iors. According to B.F. Skinner if not having direct reinforcement, it will have no artifact behavior [6;132]. The frequency of behaviors and intensity of reinforcement have a relationship in direct ratio. According to Skinner, to control re-inforcements we will control behaviors. What is a re-inforcement? A re-inforcement is a stimulating event, when that reinforcement appears in a relationship with behavior it tends to maintain or strengthen the reactions, the re- lationship between stimulation and reaction or the relationship between stimulation and stimulation [5;133]. From these points, Skinner gave stimulation - reinforcement - repeated behavioral formulas. 102 Applying some points of behavioral theories of Burrhus Frederic Skinner and... In B.F.Skinner’s basis points above, we realize that in the teaching-skill train- ing process for students, we may apply the direct-reinforcement like a basis principle in the training process. In this process we also use the stimulation - reinforcement - repeated behavior formula. To help the training process reach high effect, the teaching-skills for Geography teacher-students are divivided into many independent skills: From using the direct reinforcement and the stimulation - reinforcement - repeated behavior formula, we give the first training method for Geography teacher- students below: * Period 1: Training independent teaching-skills process. - Step 1: Students are instructed how to perform a teaching skill (in theory). - Step 2: Students are required to plan a small part of a lesson plan in which students use the teaching skill instructed in theory and exercise at home. - Step 3: Students teach the lesson plan that has been prepared in a small group (from 15 to 25 students). The teaching exercises are supervised by an educator and other students. - Step 4: The educator and other students will give some comments and contributions which are focused on the teaching skill. - Step 5: Based on the contributions and comments on the teaching skill, the students will re-plan and train at home. 103 Tran Thi Thanh Thuy - Step 6: Students will continue teaching the second time (at another time). * Period 2: Training multi teaching-skills (upper two skills). When students are trained in some seperate skills, we will combine upper two skills in one teaching-practice. This period can alternate with period 1. When we complete training some seperate skills, we will take the second period. For example, when students are trained in comunication skills, using language skill and classroom management skills, after that we will train the other three skills. This period has the same steps as the first period. But students will practise upper two teaching skills in one teaching practice. In the first training method, we use the direct reinforcement and the stimu- lation - reinforcement - repeated behavior formula from the third step to the sixth step in all of the two periods. Besides the training method above, we found that in the teaching-skills train- ing process, we should apply some different training methods to make the process more efficient. From the idea, we would offer a different training method based on the points of A. Bandura’s behaviorism. 3.0.2. Applying the social learning theory of A. Bandura A. Bandura agreed with B.F. Skinner that people’ behaviors are based on direct-reinforcements, but he pointed out that behaviors are formed by an outside direct training method, behaviors can be formed by observing and mimicing other behaviors. According to A. Bandura: ”Children do not do what adults say, but do what they see adults do”. This means that the behaviour is formed not only by direct reinforcements from the direct result of one action, it can also be formed by indirect reinforcements through observing the behavior of others and the consequences of other behaviors [3;46]. The basic points of Bandura’s theory can be summarized as follows: Firstly, when forming behavior, people are not motivated by forces from inside as well as not being oriented and controlled automatically from the external stimulus but by the interaction of three parts: behavior, characteristics of cognition and individ- ual personality, environmental events. In these parts, characteristics of cognition play an important role in forming behavior. Secondly, there are two processes in the social cognition: Acquiring knowledge (learning through their own actions) and making observations. Since it forms two types of learning: learning through ac- tions, through their own experience and learning through observing others’ actions. Through observation, students will get the indirect reinforcement. Thirdly, when observing learners this tends to set the behavioral model [4;47]. According to A. Bandura, through observing the behavior of others, learners tend to form behavior models. Behavior models are formed largely from behavior of the famous people, or those who are the same age (peer groups), same sex and have successfully solved similar problems with the learners. In addition, the simple behaviors are often imitated more easily than the complex behaviors. From the above arguments, A. Bandura also offered two manners of learning: 104 Applying some points of behavioral theories of Burrhus Frederic Skinner and... Learning through observation to create substitutional reinforcements and learning by imitating the behavior models. When considering the learning manner based on imitation of the other behav- ior models, we suggest one teaching-skills training method for Geography teacher- students below: * Period 1: To build the behavior models for students to observe. There are three types of models: - The recordings of teaching models. The teaching models will concentrate to implement one standard teaching-skill. The teachers who make the teaching models are experienced teachers. These models will be observed when students are in the first period - the separate teaching-skill training period. - The recordings of teaching models. In these teaching models, teachers tend to implement upper two teaching-skills. The second model is different from the first model, the model is more flexible, that means the behavior models have more com- plex structure. These models can be observed in the multi teaching-skills training process. - The realistic models. That means instead of observing the models on the video recordings, the students will observe the teaching in the realistic classroom setting. The teaching models may tend to concentrate on one skill or more than two skills in one teaching. This depends on the period which the students are going to. However when building the models for students to observe, we have to ensure two factors: The first factor is the behavior model and the second factor is the consequences of this behavior model. Besides, to build the observed behavior models, we have to make a detail, the teaching has to be implemented according to the script, all behavior the teaching of teachers, in the models must contain all the consequences of these behaviors. These consequences can be some comments and discussions about the teaching of the students in the class or the teachers, educators at the end of the teaching sessions. * Period 2: Making the training. - Step 1: Students observe a model. - Step 2: Discussing the models which are observed. - Step 3: Students do the teaching practice. In Faculty of Geography, we use two ways to train teaching-skills: Students watch a video recording for one period (45 minutes) of a teacher or attend a period in a realistic class in a secondary school. This method has some disadvantages. Firsly, the observed models are too complex, in the teaching, teachers perform many skills. Secondly, teachers’ teaching-skills are not really correct so they can hardly be considered the standard models. Lastly, students have to observe for a long time because they are difficult to orient when observing. These methods may be not highly effective because this is a very complex model for non-experienced students to imitate. Apart from these points, if we agreed with B.F. Skinner and A. Bandura 105 Tran Thi Thanh Thuy that behavior is formed through direct-reinforcement and indirect-reinforcement, we should go back to analysing the first teaching-skills training method. If we im- plement them strictly according to the Stimulation - direct reinforcement - repeated behavior formula in the process of training teaching-skills, we will take a long time to form teaching-skills for students. Therefore, we suggest that in both teaching-skills training periods (training single skill or multiple skills) can use the indirect-reinforcements (applying the points of A. Bandura - Learning through observing to create substitutional reinforcements) as a condition of the skill formation. This means each student will receive the direct reinforcement (making teaching practices and receive comments and suggestions) or indirect reinforcements (through observing teaching practices of other students) in all methods of training teaching-skills (single skill or multiple skills). So we can shorten the time of the training period but also ensure the science of the training process. 4. Conclusion Training teaching-skills is one of the most important tasks in educating for Geography teacher-students in the Faculty of Geography. But to make the training process highly effective, we have to use training methods that are based on applying carefully behavioral theories. So that we may educate teachers who have good teaching skills and making good a sound basis for students for their careers in the future. REFERENCES [1] M. Altet, J.D. Britten., 1990. Micro teaching and training teachers. The trans- lated document. Vietnam - Belgium Project, Vietnam, [2] Hoang Anh (ed), Do Thi Chau, Nguyen Thac, 2007. The personality interaction comunication. Hanoi Publishing House. [3] M.J. Lakshni, 2009.Microteaching and prospective teachers. Discovery publishing house PVT. Ltd. [4] Phan Trong Ngo, 2005. Teaching and teaching methods in schools. Hanoi Pub- lishing House. [5] Phan Trong Ngo, Nguyen Duc Huong, 2003. The psychological development the- ories of human. Hanoi Publishing House. [6] Pham Viet Vuong, 2001. The report about establishing teaching and education skills for students in HNUE in secondary schools. Hanoi. [7] Website: 106
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