Bài dạy Medical Assisting - Chapter 22: Organization of the Body

Learning Outcomes (cont.) 22.1 Explain the importance of understanding both anatomy and physiology when studying the body. 22.2 Illustrate body organization from simple to more complex levels. 22.3 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types. 22.4 Describe the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each.

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22Organization of the BodyLearning Outcomes (cont.)22.1 Explain the importance of understanding both anatomy and physiology when studying the body. 22.2 Illustrate body organization from simple to more complex levels.22.3 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types.22.4 Describe the body organ systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each.Learning Outcomes (cont.)22.5 Use medical and anatomical terminology correctly.22.6 Explain anatomical position and its relationship to other anatomical positions.22.7 Identify the body cavities and the organs contained in each.22.8 Relate a basic understanding of chemistry to its importance in studying the body.22.9 Name the parts of a cell and their functions. Learning Outcomes (cont.)22.10 Summarize how substances move across a cell membrane.22.11 Distinguish the stages of cell division.22.12 Explain the uses of these genetic techniques: DNA fingerprinting, and the polymerase chain reaction.22.13 Describe the different patterns of inheritance and common genetic disorders.Introduction Human body is complex in its structure and functionIt is organized from the chemical level to the organ system level You will learn important terminology used in the clinical setting and explore how diseases develop.The Study of the BodyAnatomy – study of body structurePhysiology – study of function Anatomy of an organ allows it to functionHomeostasis – relative consistency of the body’s internal environmentApply Your KnowledgeTrue or False:___ Anatomy is the study of structure.___ Physiology is the study of function and structure.___ Homeostasis is the relative consistency of the body’s internal environment.ANSWER: TFTFunction only.Organization of the BodyAtom – simplest unit of matterAtoms  moleculesChemical LevelOrganelles  cells Cells – smallest living units of the bodyCellular LevelOrganization of the same type of cellsTissueOrganTwo or more tissue typesOrgan Systems Arrangement of organsOrganism Combination of organ systemsApply Your Knowledge1. Match the following:___ Atoms A. The smallest living units in the body___ Matter B. Anything that takes up space and has weight___ Molecules C. Simplest unit of matter___ Organelles D. Same type of cells organized together___ Cells E. Molecules joined together___ Tissues F. Combination of two or more tissue types___ Organs G. Atoms that bond togetherANSWER:CBGEADFMajor Tissue TypesEpithelial tissueCovering LiningGland Exocrine Endocrine Avascular, has a nerve supplyFunction based on locationConnective TissueMost abundant tissueMatrix separates the cellsRich blood supplyCellsFibroblastsMast cellsMacrophages BloodMatrix ~ plasmaNo fibersOsseous (Bone) TissueMatrix ~ mineral saltsMetabolically aliveConnective TissueCartilage - rigid matrixDense Connective TissueMatrix ~ tough fibersSoft but strong Adipose TissueAdipocytes ~ store fatsEnergyCushionsInsulation Muscle TissueSpecialized tissue that contracts and relaxesSkeletal Muscle StriatedVoluntaryVisceral Muscle SmoothInvoluntaryCardiac Muscle StriatedInvoluntary© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Al Telser, photographerNervous TissueBrain, spinal cord, peripheral nervesSends electrical messagesCellsNeuronsNeuroglial Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are the major tissue types?ANSWER: Epithelial tissue  Connective tissue Muscle tissue  Nerve tissueImpressive!Body Organs and SystemsOrgan Structure formed by organization of two or more different tissue types Tissues work together to carry out specific functionsOrgan system – organs joined together to carry out vital functionsBody Organs and Systems (cont.)For example – the respiratory system consists of these organs:NoseNasal cavityPharynxTracheaLarynxBronchi Lungs Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is the difference between organs and organ systems? List two major components of the cardiovascular system.ANSWER: Organs are made of tissues working together to carry out a specific function and an organ system is formed when organs work together to carry out vital functions.The heart and blood vessels.Understanding Medical TerminologyWord root – base meaningSuffix After word root Alters its meaning Prefix Before the word rootAlters its meaningCombining vowel“o”Only facilitates pronunciation Apply Your KnowledgeCombine terms to answer definition. heart specialist rapid heart beat specialty of the heart CARDIOLOGISTTACHYCARDIACARDIOLOGYTACHYCARDIIALOGISTOLOGYANSWER:Anatomical TerminologyDescribe the location of body parts and various body regionsAnatomical position Body is standing upright Facing forwardArms at the sides and palms facing forwardDirectional Anatomical TermsCranial – superiorCaudal – inferior Ventral – anterior Dorsal – posterior Medial LateralProximalDistal Superficial Deep Directional Anatomical TermsSuperior (cranial)MidlineLateralMedial Proximal end of thighDistal end of thighVentral (Anterior)Dorsal (posterior)DeepSuperficialVentral surface of legDorsal surface of handAnatomical Terms Used to Describe Body SectionsInferior (caudal)Superior (cranial)Midsagittal PlaneSagittal planeTransverse planeFrontal planeAnteriorPosteriorApply Your KnowledgeWhat is the anatomical position?ANSWER: Anatomical position is the body standing upright, facing forward, with the arms at the sides and palms of hands facing forward.Good Answer!Body Cavities and Abdominal RegionsDorsal cavity Cranial – brainSpinal – spinal cordVentral cavityThoracic cavityAbdominopelvic cavityVentral cavityDorsal cavityBody Cavities and Abdominal Regions (cont.)Thoracic cavityLungs, heart, esophagus, and tracheaDiaphragmAbdominopelvicAbdominal cavity ~ organs of digestion, kidneys, and spleenPelvic cavity ~ bladder and internal reproductive organs Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are the two largest body cavities?ANSWER: Dorsal and ventral cavitiesYES!Chemistry of Life Chemistry – the study of what matter is composed of and how matter changesBody structures and functions result from chemical changesMetabolismAnabolism Catabolism ElectrolytesSubstances that release ions when put into waterIons Positively or negatively charged particlesRegulate or trigger physiologic statesEssential toFluid balanceMuscle contractionNerve impulse conductionElectrolytes (cont.)Acids and basesAcids ~ release hydrogen ionsBases ~ alkalis; release hydroxyl ionsTestingLitmus paperLiquid pH indicator test kitpH meterBiochemistryStudy of matter and chemical reactions in the bodyOrganic matterCarbon and hydrogenFour classesInorganic matter Small moleculesWater most abundant Biochemistry (cont.)Carbohydrates EnergyGlucoseLipidsTriglyceridesPhospholipidsSteroids ProteinsStructureHormones, enzymes, receptors, and antibodiesNucleic AcidsDNARNAApply Your KnowledgeWhy is it important to understand chemistry when studying the structure and function of the body?ANSWER: Structures and functions result from chemical processes that occur in the body’s cells and fluids.Super! Cell CharacteristicsBasic unit of lifeThree main parts Cell membraneCytoplasmNucleusCell Characteristics (cont.)Cell membrane Outer limitThin and selectively permeableCytoplasm Water, proteins, ions, and nutrientsOrganelles ~ perform cell functionsCell Characteristics (cont.)Organelles CiliaFlagellumRibosomes Endoplasmic reticulumMitochondriaGolgi apparatus Lysosomes Centrioles NucleusRound and near center of cellChromosomes ~ threadlike structures made up of DNAApply Your KnowledgeWhat are the three main parts of a cell, and in which one is DNA found?ANSWER: The three main parts of a cell are: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus – this is where DNA is foundExcellent!Movement Through Cell MembranesSelectively permeable membrane Controls movement in and out of cellsPassive mechanisms ~ no energy required to move substancesActive mechanisms ~ require the cell to use energy to move substancesMovement Through Cell Membranes (cont.)Diffusion – movement from an area of high concentration to one of low concentrationOsmosis – movement of water across a semipermeable membraneFiltrationThe cell membrane acts like a filterPressure forces substances across membraneActive Transport Substances cross the membrane with a carrier moleculeLow  highApply Your KnowledgeMatching: requires pressure to force substances across a membrane movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration movement of water across a semipermeable membrane movement across the cell membrane with the help of carrier moleculesDiffusionOsmosis FiltrationActive transport Impressive!ANSWER:CABDCell DivisionReproduction through cell division MitosisMeiosisCytokinesis Interphase Normal function; no divisionPrepares for cell divisionMutations – errors in duplication of DNAMitosisThe nucleus dividesCell membrane constrictsOrganelles distribute evenly into the two new cells Stages Prophase MetaphaseAnaphaseTelophase The nucleus makes a complete copy of all 23 of its chromosome pairs.MeiosisReproductive cell divisionNucleus copies all 23 chromosome pairsFour cells form with only 1 of each chromosome pairAfter fertilization, resulting cell contains 46 chromosomesApply Your KnowledgeWhat are mitosis, meiosis, and interphase?ANSWER: Mitosis is a part of cell division in which the nucleus divides.Meiosis is reproductive cell division requiring both female and male sex cells.During interphase, the cell carries out normal function and is not dividing.Bravo!Genetic TechniquesDNA Primary component of genesFound in nucleus of cellsGene – a segment of DNA that determines a body trait Genetic techniques involve using or manipulating genesGenetic Techniques (cont.)Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)Quick, easy method of making millions of copies of any fragment of DNAUsed in the study of genetics Testing for organisms Genetic testingGenetic Techniques (cont.)DNA fingerprintingUnique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNAReliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humansDiagnose genetic disordersResearchApply Your KnowledgeDesignate whether the following is related to PCR (polymerase chain reaction ) or F (DNA fingerprinting). ____ Unique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNA____ Reliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humans____ Useful to detect organisms that cannot be cultured____ Used in criminal and paternity cases____ Method for replicating DNAFFPCRPCRFANSWER:Heredity and Common Genetic DisordersThe transfer of genetic traits from parent to child46 chromosomes22 pairs ~ homologous chromosomes23rd pair ~ sex chromosomesHeredity and Common Genetic Disorders (cont.)Homologous chromosomesDominant vs. recessive allelesTraits are determined by multiple allelesComplex inheritance Sex-linked traits Common Genetic Disorders Albinism – little or no pigmentation Cystic fibrosis – life-threatening disease affecting the lungs and pancreasDown syndrome (Trisomy 21) – causes mental retardation and physical abnormalities Fragile X syndrome – cause of learning disabilityCommon Genetic Disorders (cont.) Hemophilia – blood disorder; lack of clotting factorKlinefelter’s syndrome – chromosomal abnormalityPhenylketonuria (PKU) – unable to synthesize the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosineApply Your KnowledgeANSWER: Cystic fibrosis is a life-threatening genetic disorder that affects the lungs and pancreas.What is cystic fibrosis? Correct!In Summary22.1 Knowledge of anatomy and physiology is important when learning to assign diagnostic and procedural codes and perform clinical procedures. Since the structure of an organ is related to its function, it is necessary to learn both.22.2 The body organization levels from simplest to most complex are: chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.In Summary (cont.)22.3 Epithelial tissues cover and line, or are glandular tissues. Connective tissue contains a matrix between its cells. Muscle tissue is specialized tissue that contracts and relaxes. Nervous tissue sends signals to the neurons, muscles, and glands and is located in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.22.4 Each body organ system has a particular set of organs and vessels. In Summary (cont.)22.5 Knowledge and use of anatomical and medical terminology are important for medical personnel to communicate with each other in a consistent manner. 22.6 In anatomical position, the body is erect, facing forward with arms at the sides and palms facing forward. All other body positions are defined based on their relation to anatomical position.In Summary (cont.)22.7 The dorsal cavity consists of the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity. The ventral cavity is composed of the thoracic cavity, the abdominal cavities, and, below the abdominal cavity, the pelvic cavity. The body’s organs are contained within these cavities. 22.8 It is important to have a basic understanding of chemistry when studying anatomy and physiology . 22.9 The main components of a cell have a specialized function.In Summary (cont.)22.10 Cells use both active and passive mechanisms to transport substances across the cell membrane. Passive mechanisms include diffusion, osmosis, and filtration. Active transport uses carrier molecules. 22.11 A cell at rest is said to be in interphase. During mitosis, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase occur. Reproductive cell division is known as meiosis and takes place only in the reproductive cells. In Summary (cont.)22.12 Genetic techniques allow the identification of individuals through the unique sequences of nucleotides found within DNA. Polymerase chain reactions allow millions of copies from just a fragment of DNA. 22.13 Dominant traits occur through alleles. Complex inheritance is more common and is determined by multiple genes given by both parents. Sex-linked traits are carried on the sex chromosomes. There are many genetic disorders that affect the body.Our history begins before we are born. We represent the hereditary influences of our race, and our ancestors virtually live in us. ~ James Nasmyth End of Chapter 22