Bài giảng Financial & Managerial Accounting - Chapter 15: Global business and accounting

Globalization The process of managers assessing the impact of international activities on the future of their company.

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GLOBAL BUSINESS AND ACCOUNTINGChapter 15The process of managers assessing the impact of international activities on the future of their company.Globalization typically progresses through an outward growth path.GlobalizationExportingGlobal SourcingLicensing & Joint VentureWholly Owned SubsidiariesEconomicGlobalizationTechnologicalEnvironmental Forces Shaping GlobalizationCulturalPolitical/LegalEnvironmental Forces Shaping GlobalizationEconomicGlobalizationTechnologicalPolitical/LegalBusinessesTransfer RiskControl RiskReportingIndividualsTax LawsPoliciesCulturalGlobalizationEconomicEconomic SystemObtaining CapitalIndustrial OrganizationExchange Rate FluctuationTechnologicalEnvironmental Forces Shaping GlobalizationPolitical/LegalCulturalEnvironmental Forces Shaping GlobalizationEconomicGlobalizationTechnologicalCulturalIndividualism vs. CollectivismUncertainty AvoidanceShort vs. Long HorizonPower DistancePolitical/LegalGlobalizationEconomicTechnologicalEducation LevelInfrastructureKnowledge TransferEnvironmental Forces Shaping GlobalizationPolitical/LegalCulturalForeign Currencies and Exchange RatesEach country uses its own currency for internal economic transactions.To make transactions in another country, units of that country’s currency must be acquired.The cost of those currencies is called the exchange rate.Exchange RatesExchange rates fluctuate daily.Daily exchange rates are published in the financial press, such as the Wall Street Journal.The process of restating a foreign currency amount into a domestic currency amount is called “translation”.Exchange RatesWhen the US $ price of a foreign currency unit rises, we say that the US $ is “weaker”.When the US $ price of a foreign currency unit falls, we say that the US $ is “stronger”.I noticed that the $ is stronger against the Yen today.Yes. Yesterday, Yen cost $0.0106, but today, Yen only cost $0.0100!When a transaction is denominated in a foreign currency . . . And the transaction occurs on one date (for example a credit sale) . . .. . . but the cash flow is at a later date . . .. . . fluctuating exchange rates can result in exchange rate gains or losses.?12/10/02 1 DM = $.55 US1/9/03 1 DM = $.53 USAccounting for Transactions with Foreign CompaniesExchange Rate Issues ExampleOn 9/10/02, BobCo (a US firm) sells inventory to Knight Corp. (a UK firm) on credit. Knight will pay BobCo 10,000 British pounds in 3 months.The current exchange rate is $1 = .6093 £.On 9/10/02, what is the expected US $ value of the 10,000 £ that BobCo expects to collect on 12/10/02?On September 10, BobCo would expect to be able to convert the 10,000 £ into $16,412.27 on December 10, 2002 based on the current exchange rate.10,000£ ÷ .6093 = $16,412.28 On December 10, 2002, BobCo would actually collect $16,353.23, an exchange loss of of $59.05 since September 10!10,000£ ÷ .6115 = $16,353.23 Exchange Rate Issues ExampleBy 12/10/02, the foreign exchange rate has changed to $1 = .6115 £.After receiving the British £ from Knight, and exchanging them into US $, how much will BobCo have actually received?Adjustment of Foreign Currency Transaction at the Balance Sheet DateOccasionally, a transaction occurs in one fiscal period, but cash is not received or paid until the next fiscal period.At the balance sheet date, any outstanding foreign currency receivables or payables must be “remeasured” using the spot rate available on the balance sheet date.Adjustment of Foreign Currency Transaction at the Balance Sheet DateOn 12/1/02, Balloon Co., a US balloon manufacturer sells balloons to Maison Rue., a french company, for 20,000 french francs on credit. Payment is due in 90 days.The current exchange rate is $0.1575 per FF.Prepare Balloon Co.’s 12/1/02 journal entry.Adjustment of Foreign Currency Transaction at the Balance Sheet DateOn 12/1/02, Balloon Co., a US balloon manufacturer sells balloons to Maison Rue., a french company, for 20,000 french francs on credit. Payment is due in 90 days.The current exchange rate is $0.1575 per FF.Prepare Balloon Co.’s 12/1/02 journal entry.Adjustment of Foreign Currency Transaction at the Balance Sheet DateOn 12/31/02, the value of the foreign currency receivable must be adjusted based on the 12/31/02 spot rate of $0.1500 per FF.Adjust the original receivable:Adjustment of Foreign Currency Transaction at the Balance Sheet DateOn 12/31/02, the value of the foreign currency receivable must be adjusted based on the 12/31/02 spot rate of $0.1500 per FF.Adjust the original receivable:Strategies to Avoid Losses from Rate FluctuationsInsist that the transaction is consumated in your own currency (US $). Hedging! The practice of minimizing or eliminating risk of loss associated with foreign currency fluctuations by using forward exchange rates to offset changes in spot rates.Spot RatesThe exchange rates that are available today.Forward Exchange RatesThe exchange rates that can be locked in today for expected future exchange transactions.HedgingThis forward contract allows us to purchase 1,000,000 ¥ at a price of $.0080 US in 30 days. Good. If the spot rate is $.0090 US in 30 days, we only have to pay $.0080 US, and we avoid a $1,000 loss! HedgingA forward contract requires the purchase of currency units at a future date at the contracted exchange rate.Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977When the ad said, “Job with a hot future!” this isn’t exactly what I expected.End of Chapter 15
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