Bài giảng Introduction to MIS - Chapter 14: MIS Impact on Society

Outline How does your company affect the rest of the world? What influence does the outside world have on your company? How does information technology affect individuals? As a manager and a company, do you treat individuals the way you expect to be treated by other companies? How does technology affect jobs? If computers do more of the work, what jobs are left for people? How does technology change the relationship between businesses and consumers? Can information technology change education? How does technology affect different areas of society? Can information technology improve governments? Do criminals know how to use computers? How do your actions affect society? Is it possible to follow the laws and still be wrong? What major laws affect technology and the use of computers? What risks are created through using cloud computing?

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Introduction to MISChapter 14MIS Impact on SocietyJerry PostTechnology Toolbox: E-Government SitesTechnology Toolbox: Global EnvironmentCases: HealthcareOutlineHow does your company affect the rest of the world? What influence does the outside world have on your company? How does information technology affect individuals? As a manager and a company, do you treat individuals the way you expect to be treated by other companies? How does technology affect jobs? If computers do more of the work, what jobs are left for people? How does technology change the relationship between businesses and consumers? Can information technology change education? How does technology affect different areas of society? Can information technology improve governments? Do criminals know how to use computers? How do your actions affect society? Is it possible to follow the laws and still be wrong? What major laws affect technology and the use of computers?What risks are created through using cloud computing?OperationsTacticsStrategyGovernmentConsumersEmployeesCultureBusinessesPrivacyEducationCompanyThe IT EnvironmentPrivacyGovernmentsEmployersBusinessescredit cardsloans & licensesfinancialpermitscensustransportationfinancialregulatoryemploymentenvironmentalsubscriptionseducationpurchases phonecriminal recordcomplaintsfinger printsmedicalrecordsPrivacygrocery store scanner dataBlogsSocial networksorganizationsCookiesWeb serverUser PCtimeRequest page.Send page and cookie.Display page, store cookie.Find page.Request new page and send cookie.Use cookie to identify user.Send customized page.Misuse of Cookies: Third Party AdsUseful Web siteUser PCUseful Web PageText and graphics[Advertisements]National ad Web siteDoubleclick.comLink to adsRequested pageAds, and cookieRequest pageHidden prior cookieWireless PrivacyCell phones require connections to towersE-911 laws require location capabilityMany now come with integrated GPS unitsBusiness could market to customers “in the neighborhood”Tracking of employees is already commonLocation Used by other applications as well.Set tracking for your friends to find you. Check-in to stores to tell everyone where you are.GM: On-StarContinuous tracking of your vehicle, for a fee.Insurance companiesInstall tracking device to monitor driving performance and location for a reduced rate. Any stored location data could be retrieved by the police or by lawyers in a court case. (And it has played a role for both prosecution and defense in several high-profile cases.)Privacy ProblemsTRW--1991Norwich, VTListed everyone delinquent on property taxesTerry Dean RoganLost walletImpersonator, 2 murders and 2 robberiesNCIC databaseRogan arrested 5 times in 14 monthsSued and won $55,000 from LAEmployees26 million monitored electronically10 million pay based on statisticsJeffrey McFadden--1989SSN and DoB for William Kalin from military recordsGot fake Kentucky IDWrote $6000 in bad checksKalin spent 2 days in jailSued McFadden, won $10,000San Francisco Chronicle--1991Person found 12 others using her SSNSomeone got 16 credit cards from another’s SSN, charged $10,000Someone discovered unemployment benefits had already been collected by 5 othersGovernment and PrivacyPersonal financial dataCompany financial dataPolitical negotiationsHealth dataTravel dataSpying on “ordinary” people is not an issue.Spying on business and political leaders or journalists can cause problems.Collecting data on targeted individuals such as dissidents or minorities can stifle innovation.Google Transparency Report Google reports on the number of government requests that it receives.Content Removal RequestsUser Data RequestsPrivacy LawsMinimal in USCredit reportsRight to add comments1994 disputes settled in 30 days1994 some limits on access to dataBork Bill--can’t release video rental dataEducational data--limited availability1994 limits on selling state/local data2001 rules on medical dataEuropeFrance and some other controls1995 EU Privacy ControlsPrimary U.S. Privacy LawsFreedom of Information ActFamily Educational Rights and Privacy ActFair Credit Reporting Act of 1999 (FCRA)Privacy Act of 1974Privacy Protection Act of 1980Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986Video Privacy Act of 1988Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act of 19982001 Federal Medical Privacy rules (not a law)Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (FACTA)For more, see: Opt Out ListsStop telemarketers (phone calls) junk mailMail Preference ServiceDirect Marketing AssociationP.O. Box 643Carmel, NY 10512Stop credit agencies from selling your data (credit cards)Credit Bureau Screen Service888-567-8688AnonymityAnonymity serversDianetics church (L. Ron Hubbard) officials in the U.S.Sued a former employee for leaking confidential documents over the Internet.He posted them through a Danish anonymous server.The church pressured police to obtain the name of the poster.There might be more secure anonymity servers.Should we allow anonymity on the Internet?Protects privacyCan encourage flow of informationChinese dissentersGovernment whistleblowersCan be used for criminal activityAnonymity ServerWeb ServerAnonymity ServerProxy serverTemp IP AddressThe Web server, and investigators, see the IP address of the anonymity server, not the real user.If the anonymity server is monitored in real time, or if it keeps records, it is possible to trace back to the original source.Home-healthProgrammer/analystsTravel agentsChildcareGuardsCooksNursesGardnersLawyersTeachersJanitorsBank tellersElectrical assemblersTypists/word processorsMachine-tool operatorsTextile workersSwitchboard operatorsPackaging operatorsTelephone & cable TV installersDirectory-assistance operatorsJob Changes 1995-2002Job ChangesDatabase administrators, etc.Computer engineersSystems analystsPersonal and home care aidesHome health aidesMedical assistantsTeachers, special educationAdjustment clerksTeacher aidesChild care workersSocial workersReceptionistsFood service and lodging managersNursing aides, orderlies, etc.Hand packersGuardsTeachers, secondary schoolCooks, fast foodRegistered nursesClerical supervisorsFood preparation workersMaintenance repairersCashiersGeneral managers executivesTruck driversFood counter workersMarketing supervisorsWaiters and waitressesSalespersons, retailGeneral office clerks Changes 2000-2010 (growth) Changes 2002-2012 Secretaries, except legal, medical, and executiveStock clerks and order filersData entry keyersTelemarketersPostal service mail sorters, processorsLoan interviewers and clerksComputer operatorsElectrical and electronic equipment assemblersFarmers and ranchersSewing machine operatorsWord processors and typistsTelephone operatorsMedical assistantsNetwork systems and data communications analystsPhysician assistantsSocial and human service assistantsHome health aidesMedical records and health information techniciansPhysical therapist aidesComputer software engineers, applicationsComputer software engineers, systems softwarePhysical therapist assistantsJob Changes 2004-2014Machine feeders and offbearersOrder clerksOffice machine operators, except computerPhotographic processing operatorsComputer operatorsTelephone operatorsFile clerksSewing machine operatorsMail clerks and operators, except postalCredit authorizers, checkers, clerksMeter readersTextile knitting and weaving machine operatorsHome health aidesNetwork systems and data comm. analystsMedical assistantsPhysician assistantsComputer software engineers, applicationsPhysical therapist assistantsDental hygienistsComputer software engineers, systems softwareDental assistantsPersonal and home care aidesNetwork and computer systems administratorsDatabase administratorsJob Changes: 2010 forecast Growing Jobs 2004Job2004NumberPercentHome health aides62435056.0Network systems and data communications analysts23112654.6Medical assistants38720252.1Physician assistants623149.6Computer software engineers, applications46022248.4Physical therapist assistants592644.2Dental hygienists1586843.3Computer software engineers, systems software34014643.0Dental assistants26711442.7Personal and home care aides70128741.0Network and computer systems administrators27810738.4Database administrators1044038.2Declining Jobs 2004Job2004NumberPercentSecretaries, except legal, medical, executive1934-48-2.5Stock clerks and order filers1566-115-7.3Parking lot attendants122-11-8.7Switchboard operators, answering service213-19-8.8Telemarketers415-42-10.0Farmers and ranchers1065-155-14.5Word processors and typists194-30-15.3Metal and plastic machine operators251-43-17.2Chemical plant and system operators60-11-17.7Machine feeders and offbearers148-27-18.0Order clerks293-63-21.4Office machine operators, except computer100-22-21.9Photographic processing operators54-17-30.7Computer operators149-49-32.6Telephone operators39-14-35.7File clerks255-93-36.3Sewing machine operators256-93-36.5Mail clerks and operators, except postal160-59-37.1Credit authorizers, checkers, clerks67-27-41.2Meter readers50-22-44.9Textile winding, twisting, machine operators53-24-45.5Textile knitting and weaving machine operators46-26-56.2Growing Jobs: 2010OccupationsPercent ChangeNumber of new jobs (thousands)WagesEducationBiomedical engineers7211.677,400BachelorNetwork systems analysts53155.871,000BachelorHome health aides50460.920,460OJTPersonal and home care aides46375.819,180OJTFinancial examiners4111.170,930BachelorMedical scientists4044.272,590DoctoralPhysician assistants3929.281,230MasterSkin care specialists3814.728,730VocationalBiochemists and biophysicists378.782,840DoctoralAthletic trainers376.039,640BachelorPhysical therapist aides3616.723,760OJTDental hygienists3662.966,570AssociateVeterinary technologists3628.528,900AssociateDental assistants36105.632,380OJTComputer software engineers34175.185,430BachelorMedical assistants34175.185,430BachelorPhysical therapist assistants3321.246,140AssociateVeterinarians3319.779,050ProfessionalSelf-enrichment teachers3281.335,720Work experienceCompliance officers3180.848,890OJTDeclining Jobs: 2010OccupationPercentJobs lost (thousands)WagesEducationTextile dyeing machine operators-45-7.223,680OJTTextile winding, twisting-41-14.223,970OJTTextile knitting-39-11.525,400OJTShoe machine operators-35-1.725,090OJTExtruding machine operators-34-4.831,160OJTSewing machine operators-34-71.519,870OJTSemiconductor processors-32-10.032,230VocationalTextile cutting machine-31-6.022,620OJTPostal service sorters-30-54.550,020OJTFabric menders-30-0.328,470OJTWellhead pumpers-28-5.337,860OJTFabric patternmakers-27-2.237,760OJTDrilling and boring machine operators-27-8.930,850OJTLathe operators-27-14.932,940OJTOrder clerks-26-64.227,990OJTCoil winders-25-5.627,730OJTPhotographic processing-24-12.520,360OJTFile clerks-23-49.623,800OJTDerrick operators-23-5.841,920OJTDesktop publishers-23-5.936,600VocationalAdaptive Technology rules now require that all applications sold to the federal government have the ability to be used with adaptive technology to enable people with physical challenges to use the system.A variety of hardware and software devices exist to provide alternative input and output.The foot mouse or nohands mouse uses one pedal to move the mouse and the other to click it.AdvantagesDecreased overhead.Flexibility in part-time workers.DisadvantagesHarder to evaluate workers.Harder to manage workers.The FirmAdvantagesReduced commuting costs.Flexible schedule.DisadvantagesLoss of personal contacts.Distractions.EmployeesSuburbanwork centersTelecommutingVendors v. ConsumersIntellectual PropertyPatents—20 years, process patents are vague.Copyrights—exact copies, 95 years or 70 years after the death of the author.Digital ContentCopyright protects against large copiers, but hard to enforce against individuals.Some firms chose to encrypt/protect data.The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) makes it a federal crime to circumvent copy protection methods.Digital Rights Management (Microsoft)E-Commerce bookstoreDigital Asset Server (DAS)Customer/ReaderWebsitePurchaseBank and creditcard processorSelection and purchase.Customer money transfer to store.Customer data.Selection data.Retail store data.Wholesale price charged to retailer.Commission/fee to DAS server.Money to publisher.Encrypted book sent to customer with publisher-specified level of security.AuthorPublisherOne copy in e-book format.ManuscriptDigital Rights ManagementContent ServerPurchase itemEncrypted item Tied to computer Usage rules Embedded user IDAttempt to play (or share) on different computer and player software examines the rules/rights.Hardware devices validate entire chain to ensure no insecure devices will capture the signal to convert it. HDCP handles these issues with HD TV.Music Sales Michael DeGustaPrice Discrimination-1st degreeQPDSP*No price discrimination.Price paid by everyone.Person 1P1Person 2P2Charge each person the most he or she is willing to pay.Selling products online to individual customers opens the door to charging different prices to everyone. Is this process bad?EducationCan technology change education?Computer-assisted instruction to provide individual attentionCourse managementDistance learningDo people want more technology in education?TeachersStudentsEmployersAre the answers different for lifelong learning?ProfessionalsEmployers MilitarySocial Group InteractionsSocial Group LegitimacyHow do you know what is real?How cynical do you need to be?Access to technologyHardwareSoftwareInternet (access and speed)Economics and payment mechanismE-mail access, spam, and harassmentLiability and Control of DataHow Cynical Can You Be?Which of these Web sites do you believe?How do you decide?Does it help if you know the Web site?BBC NewsArthritisCure.netMore Cures closely. This is not even a real site. It is a page designed only to sell ads.International Internet Bandwidth7,900 Gbps4,400 Gbps619 Gbps2,700 Gbps7,600 Gbps International Voice Traffic Submarine Cable Map E-GovernmentGovernment Representatives and AgenciesProviding Internet access to government data.Democracy and participationGetting data and informationProviding feedback and participatingVoting—will we ever see electronic or online voting?Information warfareWill the Internet consolidate the world?Electronic Voting ChallengesPrevent fraud by voters (identify voters).Prevent fraud by counters.Prevent fraud by application programmers.Prevent fraud by operating system programmers.Prevent attacks on servers.Prevent attacks on clients.Prevent loss of data.Provide ability to recount ballots.Ensure anonymity of votes.Provide access to all voters.Prevent denial of service attacks.Prevent user interface errors.Identify and let voters correct data entry errors.Improve on existing 1 in 6,000 to 1 in 10,000 error rates.Information WarfareControlling information and knowledgeIntercepting communications.Breaking codes.Providing false information.Protecting the modern economy.Winning a war depends on destroying the economic infrastructure, which today includes computers and networks.Stuxnet virus 2010 targeted Iranian nuclear facilities.Rise of the World-StateEarly history: City-StatesPeople band together to protect a common region.Economically and politically could only control limited areas.Modern EraNation-StateDefense within physical boundaries (oceans and mountains)International CooperationEuropean UnionNorth American Free Trade AreaMercosur and moreThe Internet could remove boundariesLaws and enforcement will require international cooperation.Nations might become insular (e.g., France/Yahoo)Companies might be forced to least-common denominatorFrance v. YahooYahoo:Auction siteFrench law:Illegal to trade Nazi memorabiliaAuction: Sell NaziBuyFrance charged Yahoo with violating French law by allowing the sale of Nazi memorabilia online.A French court convicted and fined Yahoo, although Yahoo had no physical presence in France.A U.S. court later refused to grant France the ability to collect the money from Yahoo using U.S. courts.Should a nation be able to set law for the rest of the world?Microsoft v. Fujian Dongbai Group April 21, 2011MicrosoftFujian Dongbai GroupDepartment StoreMicrosoft accused the Chinese department store company of illegally copying software (copyright violation).In April 2011, the company agreed to pay about $138,000 to Microsoft.How is this case different from France v. Yahoo?Several years ago, the U.S. government convinced China to create its own copyright law.Microsoft accused the Chinese company within China.International cooperation on laws.America v. WikiLeaksVideo from Iraq on alleged U.S. abuses.U.S. military documents on Iraq and Afghanistan wars.U.S. diplomatic “cables” or State Department e-mails, many classified “secret.”Uploads to WikiLeaksProbably from Bradley Manning, U.S. private with access to network.AmazonPayPalEveryDNSAfter cable postings, WikiLeaks servers are attacked—rumors mention government.WikiLeaks moved to Amazon servers for bandwidth and capacity.Government officials contacted Amazon. Amazon kicked out WikiLeaks for violating terms of service.Government officials contacted PayPal for taking donations. PayPal dropped WikiLeaks.EveryDNS dropped registration for WikiLeaks.Should the U.S. government be able to pressure private companies?CrimeReal-world/traditional crimeCriminals and terrorists have access to information, communication, and money.Encryption and AnonymityThe InternetCon artists have access to new and more victims.Harassment (e-mail, cell phones, stalking, etc.)Police PowersCarnivoreEchelon“Wire” tappingPrivacyFreedom of Speech (Digital Millennium Copyright Act)Responsibility and EthicsUsersCopyright LawsConfidentialityProgrammers and DevelopersSecure CodeConfidentiality and PrivacyKnow your LimitationsCompaniesProvide the tools to enable employees to do their jobs efficiently and legally.Training, compliance, security, backup.Partnerships and non-disclosure agreements.GovernmentsInfrastructureLawsPrivacyLegal EnvironmentProperty Rights (ownership)PrivacyCrime (destruction)Property RightsCopyrightRight to sellRight to make copiesRight to make derivative worksRegistration is not required, but increases the amount of money you can receive in a lawsuitIn force for “life” + 50 years (corporate is 75 years total)Cannot copyright raw dataPatentMore expensive to obtain ($10,000 +)Prohibits similar works, even if created independently.20-year limitation (from date of filing)Useful and innovativeDigital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998Made it a federal crime to distribute devices that circumvent protection(Probably) made it a federal crime to discuss ways to circumventTrademarkPrevents use of a name or logoTrade SecretNon-disclosure agreement (NDA)Minimal legal protection, but establishes contractFreedom of Information ActGives public access to most government filesFamily Educational Rights and Privacy ActLimits use of educational recordsFair Credit Reporting ActGives public access to their credit dataPrivacy Act of 1974Limits collection of government data—Most provisions are superceded and eroded by later legislation.Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986Extended wiretap protections to cell phones and e-mail.Video Privacy Act of 1988Limits access to video and library rental lists (Bork Bill).Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994Limits access to drivers’ license records to large companies (e.g., insurance).Graham-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999Added some minor financial privacy clauses into financial deregulation. Institutions must notify customers of the ability to remove their names from marketing lists.Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA) 1994Requires telecommunication firms to pay for wiretap facilities. In 2004, the FTC began discussions to extend this requirement to computer systems.PrivacyPrivacyHealth Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996Requires healthcare organizations to obtain patient s
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