Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 2: Medical Specialties

Medical Specialties Approximately 22 major medical specialties exists Specialized medical care is driven by advances in diagnosing and treating various diseases

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PowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionChapterCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 2Ramutkowski • Booth • Pugh • Thompson • Whicker1Objectives2-1 Describe medical specialties and specialists.2-2 Explain the purpose of the American Board of Medical Specialists.2-3 Describe the duties of several types of allied health professionals with whom medical assistants may work.2-4 Name professional associations that may help advance a medical assistant’s career.Types of Medical Practice2Medical Specialties Approximately 22 major medical specialties existsSpecialized medical care is driven by advances in diagnosing and treating various diseasesCardiologyPediatricsAdultNote: Cardiology = specialtyPediatrics & Adult = subspecialty3Physician Education & LicensureObtain Bachelor’s DegreeGraduate from an Accredited Medical SchoolPass the U.S. Medical Licensing ExamComplete 2-6 years of Residency4Family PracticeMedical doctors that treat all conditions and age groupsAlso called general practitioners or primary care physicians by insurance companiesRefers patients to specialists for specific diseases requiring specialized care5Medical SpecialistsSpecialistFunctionsAllergist Diagnose and treat persons with hypersensitivity to substances like drugs, chemicals, and elements in natureAnesthesiologist Administers medications that alter sensation and feelings during surgeryCardiologist Diagnose and treat diseases of the heart and blood vessels6Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionsDermatologist Diagnose and treat diseases of the skin, hair, and nailsDoctor of Osteopathy Use their eyes and hands to identify structural problems and promote natural healingEmergency Medicine Work in hospital emergency rooms Diagnose and treat medical crisis and accidents7Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionsEndocrinologist Diagnose and treat disorders of the endocrine system which regulates many body functionsGastroenterologist Diagnose and treat disorders related to the stomach, intestines, and other organsGerontologist Diagnose and treat problems and diseases affecting older adults8Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionInternist Diagnose and treat problems related to internal organsNephrologist Study, manage, and diagnose diseases of the kidneyNeurologist Diagnose and treat disorders and diseases of the nervous systemObstetrics Study pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum9Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionOncologist Identify and treat patients with cancerOphthalmologist Diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of the eyeOrthopedist Diagnose and treat diseases and disorders of muscles and bonesOtorhinolaryngogolist Diagnose and treat ear, nose, and throat disorders10Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionPathologist Studies bodily changes produced by disease processesPediatrician Diagnose and treat childhood diseasesPhysiatrists Diagnose and treat diseases and disorders with physical therapyPlastic Surgeon Performs reconstruction, correction, and improvement of body structures11Medical Specialists (cont.)SpecialistFunctionRadiologist Uses X rays and radioactive substances to diagnose and treat diseases Surgeon Uses their hands and instruments to diagnose, correct, and treat injuries, diseases, and deformitiesUrologist Diagnose and treat diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and urinary system12Apply Your Knowledge Name the medical specialists who would be involved in the care of a 6-month-old infant with massive burns over 90% of his body? Indicate how each specialist will contribute to the care for this situation.13Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerPediatrician6-month-old infant Plastic SurgeonSkin graftingDermatologistSkin, hair, and nail repairEmergency Medicine Treats medical crisis14Health CareTeam MembersMedical AssistantsDoctorsSpecialistsNursesPatientsWorking With Other Allied Health Professionals15Electroencephalographic (EEG) TechnologistElectroencephalography is the study and recording of the brain electrical activity.EEG technologists are also referred to as technicians.EEG technicians work in hospitals, physician’s offices, and clinics.16Electrocardiograph (ECG) TechnicianECG Technicians operate electrocardiograph machines that record the heart’s electrical impulsesECG Technicians work in hospitals17Medical TechnologyMedical TechnologistPerform lab tests and procedures such as examining body fluids and tissuesHave a 4-year degreeWork in clinics, industry, hospitals, research, etc.Medical Laboratory Technician (MLT)Perform lab tests under supervision of physicians or medical technologistsHave 1 to 2 year degreesWork in hospital labs, clinics, etc.18Physician Assistant (PA)Provides direct patient care under the supervision of a licensed physicianTraining requirements vary, many states require certification and registration with the state medical boardWorks in a variety of settings such as private practice, nursing homes, hospitals, etc.Some states allow them to write prescriptions19Nuclear Medicine TechnologistComplete either a 2-year or 4-year programWork in hospitals, physician offices, or public health institutionsDuties include:Overseeing quality controlPrepare & administer radioactive drugsOperate radiation detection instrumentsPatient positioningPerforming imaging procedures20Respiratory TherapistWorks under the supervision of a physicianWorks in hospitals, physician offices, nursing homes, and commercial companiesEvaluates, treats and cares for patients with respiratory problems such as:AsthmaEmphysemaPneumoniaBronchitis 21Medical SecretaryAssist medical, professional, and technical personnelWork in hospitals, clinics, medical offices, and nursing homesPerform secretarial and clerical duties such as:TypingDictationMaintaining filesUsing word processors to compose and prepare letters22Physical Therapist (PT)Has a bachelor’s degree in physical therapyMust pass a state board examinationMay work in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, outpatient clinics, private practice, or sports medicine centerImprove patient functioning by using:Electricity and heatColdUltrasound & massageExercise23Medical Records TechnologistOrganize and evaluate medical recordsCompile administrative and health statistics, code symptoms, and input and retrieve computerized health dataTwo types are:Registered Records Administrator (RRA)Accredited Records Technician (ART)24PhlebotomistDraw blood for diagnostic laboratory testingReceive advanced phlebotomy training that allows them to draw blood under difficult circumstancesMost states require phlebotomists to be certified by the National Phlebotomy Association or registered by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists25Radiologic TechnicianTrained in x-ray theory and practical applications as well as radioactive materialsMay specialize in radiation therapy, radiography, or nuclear medicineWork in:HospitalsClinicsMedical LaboratoriesMedical Practices26RadiographerAlso called x-ray technicianAssists radiologist in taking x-ray films to diagnose broken bones, tumors, ulcers and diseaseWorks in:HospitalsLaboratoriesClinicsIndustryGovernment AgenciesPhysician Offices27PharmacistDispense medications and health supplies to the publicEmployed in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, pharmaceutical companies, private or chain pharmacies3-levels of educational training for pharmacy careers28Registered DietitianAlso called nutritionistsAssists patients and family with nutrition planningMay prepare and serve food to groupsWork settings include:Community Health AgenciesHospitalsClinicsPrivate PracticesTeaching and serving as Consultants29Nursing CareersTrainingSample DutiesNursing Aide/Assistant1 week to 3 monthsBed makingVital signsBathing PatientsPractical/Vocational Nurse1 yearVital SignsMedication AdministrationDressing ChangesAssist registered nurses & physicians30Registered Nurse (RN)TitleTrainingAssociate Degree RN(ADN)2 yearsDiploma RN3 yearsBaccalaureate RN(BSN)4 years31Nurse Practitioner (NP)An RN that functions in an expanded roleRequires a minimum of a Master’s Degree and 4 to 12 months of formal training or an apprenticeshipDuties include:Physical ExaminationsTreating Common illnesses & injuriesMany states allow NP’s to write prescriptionsPatient Education32Mental Health TechnicianAlso called psychiatric aide or counselorParticipates in supervising group therapy and counseling sessionsWorks with emotionally disturbed and mentally retarded patients in settings such as:Psychiatric ClinicsCrisis Centers & SheltersHospital Psychiatric UnitsSpecialized Nursing Home Settings33Occupational TherapistHelps patients attain maximum physical and mental health through the use of educational, vocational and rehabilitation activitiesHave a 4-year degree plus 9 to 12 months internship at an accredited hospitalWork settings include:HospitalGovernment agencyRehabilitation Hospital34Medical TranscriptionistTranslate a physician’s dictation about patient treatments into a comprehensive, typed reportWork settings include:Attorney OfficesInsurance CompaniesHospitalsPhysician OfficesClinicsLaboratories35Apply Your KnowledgeIf you had to choose other health team members to plan the care for a 68-year old patient recently diagnosed with a stroke, who has a history of seizure disorders, which would you choose, and why? 36Physical Therapist-for decreased mobility due to strokePharmacist-medicationsNutritionist-dietary modificationsEEG-check brain electrical activitiesNurse (RN & CNA)Other answers may be acceptable!Apply Your Knowledge -Answer37Specialty Career OptionsAnesthetist’s AssistantProvide anesthetic care under direct supervision of the anesthetistWork in hospitals and high-technology surgical centersAssist in evaluating patient mental and physical statusDental AssistantCan practice without formal education or trainingPerform both administrative and lab functionsWork in private practice, clinics, schools, local health agencies, and for insurance companies38Specialty Career Options (cont.)Pediatric Medical AssistantAssist the pediatrician with administrative and clinical dutiesWork in private practice, hospitals, and clinicsPharmacy TechnicianPerform routine tasks related to record keeping and preparing and dispensing medicationsWork in hospitals, pharmaceutical firms, and wholesale pharmacies39Specialty Career Options (cont.)Emergency Medical Technician/ParamedicReferred to as an EMTTrained to triage patients and follow instructions from a physicianWork for an ambulance service, fire department, hospital emergency rooms, and private industrySurgeon’s AssistantComplete a 2-year or 4-year degreeProvide patient services under direct supervision of a surgeonPerform diagnostic and therapeutic proceduresWork in hospitals primarily40Specialty Career Options (cont.)Ophthalmic AssistantAssists ophthalmologists Performs simple vision testing and other patient care procedures3 Ophthalmic Career levels:TechnologistTechnicianAssistantPhysical Therapy AssistantWorks directly under the physical therapistPerforms tests and treatment proceduresObserves and documents patient responses to therapyWorks in hospitals, rehabilitation centers, nursing homes, etc.41Specialty Career Options (cont.)Radiation Therapy TechnologistAssists the radiologistMaintains radiation treatment equipmentCompletes a 2-or 4- year education programWorks in hospitals, labs, clinics, and physician officesRespiratory Therapy TechnicianWorks under supervision of physician and respiratory therapistPerforms artificial ventilation and maintains respiratory equipmentWorks in hospitals, physician offices, nursing homes, etc.42Specialty Career Options (cont.)Speech/Language PathologistEvaluate, diagnose, and counsel patients with communication problems like stutteringUsually have a Master’s DegreeWork in schools, hospitals, research settings, teach, or private practiceCertified Laboratory AssistantPerform lab procedures such as bacteriology, chemistry, hematology, parasitology, serology, and urinalysisAre supervised by medical technologists or hospital pathologistsWork in labs, clinics, physician offices, etc.43Specialty Career Options (cont.)Occupational Therapist AssistantSupervised by occupational therapistsTeach fine motor skills, occupations & the arts to patients with mental & physical disabilitiesEarn a 2-year degreePathologist AssistantSupervised by a pathologistSome work with forensic and/or anatomic pathologistsPerform laboratory duties and some administrative functions44Professional AssociationsAmerican Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA)American Association for Medical Transcription (AAMT)American College of Physicians (ACP)American Hospital Association (AHA)American Medical Association (AMA)45Professional AssociationsAmerican Medical Technologist (AMT)American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA)American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP)American Society of Phlebotomy Technicians (ASPI)46Apply Your KnowledgeWhich of the professional organizations listed below are primarily for the role (s) of medical assistants?AMAAAMAAHAAMTASCPAAMTACPAPhAxxx-Answer47The EndThe End48
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