Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 20: Infection-Control Techniques

Objectives 20-1 Describe the three levels of infection control. 20-2 Compare and contrast the procedures for sanitization, disinfection and sterilization. 20-3 Describe measures used in sanitization. 29-4 List various methods used in disinfection and the advantages and disadvantages of each. 20-5 Explain what an autoclave is and how it operates. 20-6 List the steps in the general autoclave procedures.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 201Objectives20-1 Describe the three levels of infection control.20-2 Compare and contrast the procedures for sanitization, disinfection and sterilization.20-3 Describe measures used in sanitization.29-4 List various methods used in disinfection and the advantages and disadvantages of each.20-5 Explain what an autoclave is and how it operates.20-6 List the steps in the general autoclave procedures.Infection-Control Techniques 2Objectives (cont.)20-7 Explain how to wrap and label items for sterilization in an autoclave.20-8 Describe how to complete the sterilization procedure using an autoclave.20-9 Describe four other methods for sterilizing instruments.20-10 List some infectious diseases, and identify their signs and symptoms.Infection-Control Techniques3Objectives (cont.)20-11 Describe Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for reporting cases of infectious disease.20-12 Describe CDC guidelines for patient isolation.20-13 Explain the purpose of immunization.20-14 Describe your role in educating patients about immunizations.Infection-Control Techniques4Introduction Patients coming to the office for treatment may be more susceptible to infections.Importance of immunizations and patient education is stressed as a method of infection control. You will be introduced to identifying infectious diseases, reporting guidelines and how to isolate patients.5Medical Assistant’s Role in Infection Control Follow correct sanitization, disinfection and sterilization proceduresHelp patient understand basic disease preventionAdminister immunizations and educate patients about immunizations6Three Levels of Infection ControlSanitization – cleaning and scrubbing instruments and equipment to remove contaminated materials and microorganismsDisinfection – second level used on instruments and equipments that come in contact with intact mucous membrane Sterilization – complete destruction of all microorganisms-pathogenic, beneficial, and harmless- surface of instrument and equipment7Sanitization MethodsCollecting instruments – place in container with water and neutral pH detergent until you can get to them.Use utility gloves always and mask, eye protection and protective clothing if blood, body fluids or tissue are present8Sanitization Methods (cont.)Drain disinfectant or detergent solutionRinse each piece under hot running waterScrub each item using hot, soapy water and small plastic brushPay careful attention to hinges, ratchets and nooks9Sanitization Methods (cont.)Rinse instruments individually and place each one on a clean towel.Roll all instruments in the towel to remove moisturePlace instruments either in trays or bins for storage or wrap for sterilization10Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is the difference between sanitization and sterilization?11Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerSanitization is the cleaning and scrubbing instruments and equipment to remove contaminated materials and microorganisms. Sterilization is the complete destruction of all microorganisms -pathogenic, beneficial, and harmless - from the surface of instruments and equipment.What is the difference between sanitization and sterilization?12Disinfection Wear gloves when handling instruments.Disinfection solution must cover every surface.Used if instrument does not penetrate a patient’s skin or mucous membranesEnamelwareEndotracheal tubesGlasswareLaryngoscopes and nasal specula13Sterilization Required for all instruments or supplies that will penetrate a patient’s skin or any other normally sterile area of the body.First sanitize it and/or disinfect it.AutoclavingChemical (cold) processesDry heat processesGas processesMicrowave processes14AutoclavePrimary method of sterilizing instrumentsSteam operate at lower temperature Moist steam permeates the wrapping Moisture causes coagulation of proteins causing cells to burst and killing them.15Autoclave (cont.)Prepare instruments by wrapping in muslin or special porous paperPreheat according to manufacturer’s guidelinesPerform any quality control proceduresLoad instruments and equipmentSet the autoclave for the correct time after temperature and pressure has been reached16Autoclave (cont.)Run the autoclave through sterilization cycle and drying cycleRemove the instruments and equipmentStore the instruments and equipment properlyClean autoclave and surrounding area17MicroorganismsOther Methods of SterilizationChemical – using chemicals solutions (Chemiclave) when heat can’t be usedDry heat – used when can’t use heat or chemicalsGas – used in hospitals takes longer than steamMicrowave – low pressure steam with radiation to produce localized heat that kills microorganisms.18Apply Your KnowledgeWhen would you use a chemical process to sterilize instruments?19Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerYou would use chemical process to sterilize instruments when heat and moisture would damage the instruments.When would you use a chemical process to sterilize instruments?20Infectious DiseasePertussisPoliomyelitisRoseolaRubella Chickenpox (varicella)Common coldCroupDiphtheriaHaemophilus influenzae Type BInfluenzaMeaslesIdentifying signs and symptoms of these diseases can help protect health care workers and patients from exposure to pathogens.21Infectious Disease (cont.)Common cold Signs and symptoms:Coughing and sneezingIncubation lasts 2 to 3 daysUse frequent hand washing22Infectious Disease (cont.) Croup – occurs when an allergy, foreign body, or an infection obstructs the upper airway.Harsh, barking cough, difficulty breathingUse humidified airEncourage rest and clear warm fluids23Infectious Disease (cont.)Measles (rubeola) – viral disease; itchy rash appears 14 days after exposureMumps – viral infection; pain and inflammation of the parotid glands, feverRubella – viral infection; fever and itchy rashImmunization programs for children will reduce patients risk of contracting these diseases.24Infectious Disease (cont.)Tetanus (lockjaw) – bacterial disease cause by puncture wound by infected fomiteVaccination can prevent tetanusTuberculosis (TB) – bacterial disease of the lungs with night sweats, fever, chills, fatigue, blood sputum.25Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are three viral infections that children most commonly receive immunizations against? 26Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerMeasles, mumps, and rubellaWhat are three viral infections that children most commonly receive immunizations against? 27Reporting GuidelinesCDC requires reporting certain diseases to the state or county department of health. Helps research epidemiologists control the spread of infections.Certain diseases must be reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System of the CDC. (See figure 20-10.)28Guidelines for Isolation PrecautionsThree parts:Standard Precautions developed Precautions designed to prevent spread of infection by droplet, airborne, or contact known as Transmission-Based PrecautionsDescribes specific syndromes you may encounter that are highly infectious29ImmunizationsAdministration of a vaccine or toxoid to protect susceptible individuals from infectious diseaseReduces risk of infection spread30Immunization (cont.) Immunization for Children published jointly by:Advisory Committee on Immunization PracticesAmerican Academy of PediatricsAmerican Academy of Family Physicians The National Coalition of Adult Immunization (NCAI) publishes a schedule for adults.31Patient Education – ImmunizationsPediatric PatientsInformed consentsContraindicationsImmunizations recordsPregnantMay need more immunizations Do not give rubella immunization during pregnancy32Patient Education – Immunizations (cont.)Elderly Patients:Influenza and pneumonia are neededDescribe that side effects are mildImmunocompromised PatientsCan experience minimal to dangerous effects of immunizationsDepends on patient’s disease 33Patient Education – Immunizations (cont.)Health care Workers:Risk of contracting infectious disease.Should pay careful attention to own immunization status.Employers must offer vaccination against Hepatitis B at no cost to employee.34Apply Your KnowledgeWhat organization publishes immunization schedules for adults?35Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerNational Coalition of Adult Immunization (NCAI)What organization publishes an immunization schedule for adults?36Summary Medical Assistant Sanitization, disinfection, and sterilization break the pathogen cycle by ridding instruments and equipment of pathogens. You play a vital role in reducing patient vulnerability by encouraging patients to maintain a correct immunization status and by being aware of special immunization concerns of certain patients.37End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 38