Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 23: Organization of the Body

Objectives 23-1 Spell, define and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 23-2 Describe how the body is organized from simple to more complex levels. 23-3 List all body organs systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each. 23-4 Define the anatomical positions and explain its importance.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 231Objectives23-1 Spell, define and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 23-2 Describe how the body is organized from simple to more complex levels.23-3 List all body organs systems, their general functions, and the major organs contained in each.23-4 Define the anatomical positions and explain its importance.Organization of the Body 2Objective (cont.)23-5 Use anatomical terminology correctly.23-6 Name the body cavities and the organs contained in each.23-7 Explain the abdominal regions.23-8 Explain why a basic understanding of chemistry is important in studying the body.23-9 Describe important molecules and compounds of the human body.Organization of the Body323-10 Label the parts of a cell and list their functions.23-11 List and describe the ways substances move across a cell membrane.23-12 Describe the stages of cell division.23-13 Describe the uses of the genetic techniques, DNA fingerprinting and the polymerase chain reaction.Organization of the BodyObjective (cont.)423-14 Explain how mutations occur and what effects they may produce.23-15 Describe the different patterns of inheritance.23-16 Describe the signs and symptoms of various genetic conditions.23-17 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types.Organization of the BodyObjective (cont.)5Introduction Human body is complex in its structure and functionThe body is organized from the chemical level all the way up to the organ system level. You will also learn important terminology used in the clinical setting to describe body positions and parts.6Study of the Body Anatomy – study of body structurePhysiology – study of function Homeostasis – maintenance of stable internal conditions7Organizations of the BodyLevels of OrganizationAtomMoleculeOrganelles CellsTissuesOrgansOrgan SystemOrganism (human)8Body Organs and SystemsStructures formed by organization of two or more different tissue types that work together to carry out specific functions.For example the respiratory system consists of lungs and respiratory passages9Anatomical TerminologyGroup of universal terms used to describe the location of body parts and various body regionsAnatomical position – body is standing upright, facing forward with the arms at the sides with palms of hands facing forward10Directional Anatomical TermsUsed to identify the position of body structures compared to other body surfacesClick for Table 23-1 Directional Anatomical TermsClick for Figure 23-3 Directional TermsClick for Figure 23-4 Spatial TermsClick for Figure 23-5 Anatomical Terms11Table 23-1 Directional Terms12Figure 23-3 Directional Terms13Figure 23-4 Spatial Terms14Figure 23-5 Anatomical Terms15Body Cavities Dorsal Cavity Cranial - brainSpinal – spinal cordVentral CavityThoracic – lungs, heart, esophagus and tracheaAbdominal – organs of digestion, bladder and internal reproductive organs 16Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is the anatomical position?17Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerAnatomical position is when the body is standing upright, facing forward with the arms at the sides with palms of hands facing forwardWhat is the anatomical position?18Chemistry of Life Study of what matter is composed of and how matter changes.When studying anatomy and physiology you need a basic understanding of chemistry because body structures and functions result from chemical changes that occur.19Molecules and CompoundsMolecules – two or more atoms chemically combineCompounds – two or more atoms of more than one element combineWater is a compoundWater is critical to both chemical and physical processes in human physiology and is about 2/3 of your body weight.20Molecules and Compounds (cont.)Others:Electrolytes – movement of ions into and out of body structures regulate or trigger many physiologic states and activitiesAcids Bases21BiochemistryStudy of matter and chemical reactions in the bodyOrganic – matter containing carbon and hydrogenInorganic – does not contain hydrogen or carbon22CellsBasic unit of lifeBody has millions of cellsThree main parts of a cell:Cell membraneCytoplasmNucleus23Apply Your KnowledgeThe physician has encouraged the patient to drink 8 glasses of water a day. Explain to her why this is important.24Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerWater is critical to both chemical and physical processes in human physiology and is about 2/3 of the body weightThe physician has encouraged the patient to drink 8 glasses of water a day. Explain to her why this is important.25Cell PartsCell membrane Selectively permeableAllows some substances to pass CytoplasmInside of cellMade up of water, proteins, ions, and nutrientsNucleusRound structure near the centerContains chromosomes: threadlike structures made up of DNA26Movement Through Cell MembranesDiffusion – movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentrationOsmosis – diffusion or movement of water across a semi-permeable membraneFiltration – under pressure substances are forced across a membrane that acts like a filterActive Transport – moves across cell membrane with the help of a carrier molecule27Stages of Cell Division Mitosis – following interphase – Cell enters mitosisCystoplasmic division occursCell membrane constricts to divide the cytoplasm of the cellResults in organelles of original cell over two identical new cellsMeiosis28Genetic TechniquesDNA is primary component of genesDNA is found in nucleus of cellsGene is segment of DNA that determines body trait Genetic techniques involve using or manipulating genes29Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)Quick, easy method of making millions of copies of any fragment of DNAUsed in the study of genetics Necessary tool for improving human healthLeading to new kinds of genetic testing30DNA - FingerprintingUnique sequences of nucleotides in a person’s DNASame for every cell, tissue, or organ of that personReliable method for identifying and distinguishing among humansUsed in criminal casesPaternity for custody and child support issues31HeredityTransfer of genetic traits from parent to child23 chromosomes from both parents = 46 chromosomesChromosomes possess many genesHomologous chromosomes – carry same genes that code a trait, but may be different forms called allelesDominate allelesRecessive alleles32Common Genetic Disorders Albinism - little or no pigmentation in the skinAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) – common behavioral disorderCleft lip or cleft palate – gap or depression in the upper lip or palate33Cystic fibrosis – life-threatening disease that affects the lungs and pancreasDown’s syndrome – causes mental retardation and physical abnormalitiesFragile X syndrome – most common inherited cause of learning disabilityCommon Genetic Disorders (cont.) 34Hemophilia – blood disorder; lack of clotting factorKlinefelter’s syndrome – chromosomal abnormality that affects malesMuscular dystrophy – affects muscular and nervous systemsPhenylketonuria (PKU) – cannot synthesize the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosineCommon Genetic Disorders (cont.) 35Sickle cell anemia – abnormal hemoglobin is produced in red blood cellsSpina bifida – one or more vertebrae do not form properly, leaving a gap in the spinal column and leading to damage of the spinal cordTurner’s syndrome – an X chromosome is completely or partially missingCommon Genetic Disorders (cont.) 36Major Tissue TypesEpithelialCovering, lining, or glandCovers the body and most organsConnectiveMost abundant Matrix separates the cellsBloodOsseous tissue (bone)37Major Tissue Types (cont.)MuscleShortens and elongatesContracts and relaxes includes skeletal, smooth, and cardiacSkeletal Muscle Tissue38Major Tissue Types (cont.)Nervous Specializes to send impulses to neurons, muscles and glandsNervous Tissue39Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is cystic fibrosis? 40Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerCystic fibrosis is life-threatening disease that affects the lungs and pancreas.What is cystic fibrosis? 41Summary Medical Assistant The body is organized from the chemical level all the way up to the organ system level. You will also learn important terminology used in the clinical setting to describe body positions and parts.42End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 43
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