Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 53: X rays and Diagnostic Radiology

Objectives: 53-1 Define X rays and explain how they are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. 53-2 Compare invasive and noninvasive diagnostic procedures. 53-3 Discuss the medical assistant’s role in x-ray and diagnostic radiology testing. 53-4 Describe the imaging process and uses of the various types of X rays.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 531Objectives:53-1 Define X rays and explain how they are used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.53-2 Compare invasive and noninvasive diagnostic procedures.53-3 Discuss the medical assistant’s role in x-ray and diagnostic radiology testing.53-4 Describe the imaging process and uses of the various types of X rays.X rays and Diagnostic Radiology 2Objectives:53-5 Discuss the medical assistant’s duties in preparing a patient for an X ray.53-6 Explain the risks and safety precautions associated with radiology work.53-7 Describe proper procedures for filing and maintaining x-ray films and records.X rays and Diagnostic Radiology 3Introduction Diagnostic radiology is a valuable tool for physicians for screening and clinical diagnosis.Safety issues, proper handling, and storage of the actual films are discussed. You will learn the basics of noninvasive and invasive radiology and your role in this testing.4Brief History of X ray 1895 - Wilhelm K Roentgen discovered X ray. High energy level of electromagnetic waves traveling at 186,000 miles per second that can penetrate solids.X ray reacts with photographic film.5Diagnostic RadiologyTests sometimes use contrast media.Special techniques or instruments for viewing internal structures and functions.Contrast medium – Substance that makes internal organs denser Blocks the passage of X -rays to the photographic filmContrast media include gases, heavy metal salts (barium sulfate or bismuth carbonate), and iodine compounds.6Invasive ProceduresRequires a radiologist to insert a catheter, wire, or other testing device into a blood vessel or organRequires surgical aseptic techniquesFor example, Angiography7Noninvasive ProceduresStandard X rays or ultrasoundView internal structureDoes not require inserting devices, breaking the skin, or monitoring Uses the conventional x-ray machine or specialized instruments8Medical Assistant’s RoleAssisting the radiologic technologist or radiologist in performing diagnostic radiologic procedure.You may be allowed to learn how to operate X rays.Provide preprocedure and post procedure care of the patient.Explain the test to the patient.9Preprocedure CareSchedule appointmentsProvide preparation instructionsExplain the procedure Ask pertinent questions. Obtain medication history. Ask woman if she is pregnant or could be pregnant and report the answers to the physician or radiologic technologist.10During and After the X rayAssist with placing, removing, and developing filmYou should know the positions but usually do not put patient in x-ray positionsProcedure 52-1 “Assisting with an X-ray Examination”11Apply Your KnowledgeWhat are noninvasive procedures ?12Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerWhat are noninvasive procedures ?Noninvasive procedures do not require inserting devices, breaking the skin, or monitoring and uses the conventional x-ray machine or specialized instruments to visualize internal organs.13Common Diagnostic TestAngiographyArthrographyBarium enema and swallowCystographyMyelographyRetrograde pyelographyContrast Media –visualized body structures14Common Diagnostic TestFluoroscopy-certain chemicals will become fluorescent to view internal organs.Angiography – invasive to assess the vessel’s blood flow or condition.Arthrography – used to diagnose abnormalities or injuries in cartilage, tendons, or ligaments.Barium enema and swallow – instills barium to view internal organs.15Common Diagnostic TestCholecystography – detect gallstones or gallbladderConventional tomography and computer tomography – used to diagnosis problems in almost all of body structures16Common Diagnostic Test (cont.)Heart X ray – shows configuration of the heart and shows cardiac enlargement or aortic dilation.Intravenous pyelography (IVP) – shows how contrast medium travels through the urinary system to detect problems.Retrograde pyelography – injects the contrast medium through a urethral catheter and is similar to IVP.17Common Diagnostic Test (cont.)Kidneys, ureters, and bladder (KUB) radiography – assesses the size, shape, and position of urinary organs.Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – uses strong magnetic field to examine internal structures and soft tissues.Mammography – exams internal breast tissues.18Common Diagnostic Test (cont.)Myelography – fluoroscopy of the spinal cord used to evaluate spinal abnormalities.Nuclear medicine – use of radionuclides or radioisotopes (radioactive elements or their compounds) to evaluate internal organs.SPECTPETMUGA19Common Diagnostic Test (cont.)Stereoscopy – study of the skull with specially designed microscope.Thermography – diagnose breast tumors, breast abscesses, and fibrocystic breast disease.Ultrasound – directs high-frequency sound waves to produce an echo of the internal organ.20Common Therapeutic Uses of RadiationUsed to treat cancer by preventing cellular reproductionTwo types:Teletherapy – allows deep penetration used for deep tumorsBrachytherapy – places temporary radioactive implants close to or directly into the cancerous tissueTake special precautions for radiation safety when treating patients with brachytherapy21Radiation Safety and DoseReducing Patient ExposurePrevent serious general tissue damage by limiting radiation dose to levels below known thresholdsTo reduce the risk of cancer or genetic effects to a level that is balanced by potential benefits22Safety PrecautionsPersonnel safetyAdhere to guidelines, must always wear a radiation exposure badgeMake sure equipment is working properlyBe sure others wear lead shield when equipment is operating 23Storing and Filing X raysKeep fresh film on handMaintain new and exposed film in good condition between 50-700 and at 30-50% humidityPrevent pressure marks Do not stack on top of each other and use oldest film firstOpen all packages or boxes in darkroom24Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is an MRI? 25Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerWhat is an MRI? Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) – uses strong magnetic field to examine internal structures and soft tissues26Summary Medical Assistant You will be asked to assist with patient care before and sometimes during and after diagnostic procedures. Your responsibilities include explanations to patients, preparing patients for various tests, and assisting doctor or technician as need.27End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 28
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