Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 24: The Integumentary System

Objectives 24-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 24-2 List the functions of skin. 24-3 Explain the role of skin in regulating body temperature. 24-4 Describe the layers of skin and the characteristics of each layer. 24-5 Explain the factors that affect skin color.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 241Objectives 24-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 24-2 List the functions of skin.24-3 Explain the role of skin in regulating body temperature.24-4 Describe the layers of skin and the characteristics of each layer.24-5 Explain the factors that affect skin color.The Integumentary System 2Objectives (cont.)24-6 List the accessory organs of the skin and describe their structures and functions.24-7 Describe the appearance, causes, and treatments of various types of skin cancer.24-8 Describe the appearance, causes, and treatments of common skin disorders.24-9 Explain the ABCD rule and its use in evaluating melanoma.The Integumentary System324-10 List the different types of burns and describe their appearance and treatments. 24-11 Describe the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of other skin disorders and diseases.23-15 Describe the different patterns of inheritance.23-16 Describe the signs and symptoms of various genetic conditions.23-17 Describe the locations and characteristics of the four main tissue types.The Integumentary SystemObjectives (cont.)4Introduction Integumentary system consists of skin and its accessory organs.Accessory organs:Hair folliclesNailsSkin glandsSkin is the body’s outer covering and its largest organ.5Functions of Integumentary System ProtectionBody temperature regulationVitamin D productionSensationExcretion 6Structure of SkinEpidermis Stratum corneumStratum basaleDermisHypodermis (subcutaneous)7Skin ColorDetermined by amount of melanin in the epidermis of skinRange from yellowish to brownishThe more melanin the darker the skin color8Common Skin DisordersAlopecia – results in hair lossCellulitis – inflammation of connective tissue in skinDermatitis – inflammation of skin or a rashEczema – chronic dermatitisFolliculitis – inflammation of hair follicles9Common Skin Disorders (cont.)Herpes simplex – Type 1 and 2Herpes zoster – shinglesImpetigo – oozing skin lesions that eventually crust overPsoriasis – inherited autoimmune disorderScabies – contagious skin condition caused by mites10Apply Your KnowledgeWhat is alopecia?11Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerAlopecia results in hair lossWhat is alopecia?12CancersBasal cell carcinoma – progresses slowly and rarely spreads to other body partsSquamous cell –more likely to spread to surrounding tissuesMalignant melanoma – more aggressive; occurs anywhere Most arise from melanocytes13Cancers (cont.) Signs and symptoms:New growth or sore that will not healWaxy, smooth, red, pale, flat, or lumpyMay or may not bleedTreatment: Curettage and electrodessicationMohn’ surgeryCryosurgeryLaser therapyBasal Cell Carcinoma14Cancers (cont.)Signs and symptoms:Arises from flat cells of the epidermisTreatment:Same as for basal cell carcinomaSquamous Cell Carcinoma15Signs and Symptoms:Arise from melanocytesAppear on trunk, head, neck of menAppear on arms and legs of womenItches or bleedsTreatment:Surgery & biopsyRemoval of cancerous lymph nodesChemotherapyRadiation therapyImmunotherapyCancers (cont.)Melanoma16Stages of Melanoma:Stage O – only found in epidermisStage I – spread to epidermis and dermis (1 to 2 mm thick)Stage II – 2 to 4 mm thick plus ulcerationStage III – spread to one or more lymph nodesStage IV – spread to other body organs or lymph nodes far from original melanomaCancers (cont.)17ABCD Rule to Evaluate MelanomaA – Asymmetry:the mole should not become asymmetricalB – Border should not become irregularC – Color should not change or become a mixture of colorsD – Diameter should not grow larger than the diameter of a pencil eraser18Apply Your KnowledgeThe physician told you that the patient in room three has stage IV melanoma. As you walk back to her room, what should you remember about stage IV melanoma?19Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerStage IV has spread to other body organs or lymph nodes far from original melanoma.The physician told you that the patient in room three has stage IV melanoma. As you walk back to her room, what should you remember about stage IV melanoma?20Accessory Organs of Skin Hair follicles – Tube-like depressions in the dermis of skin, generate hairsSebaceous glandsOil glands that produces sebum to keep hair softNails Protect the ends of fingers and toes21Accessory Organs of Skin (cont.)Sweat glandsLocated in the dermis of skinEccrine – produce watery type of sweatApocrine – produces thicker type of sweat22BurnsSecond leading cause of accidental death in the U.S.Rule of Nines is used to determine severity (degree) of burnBurn severity:First - degreeSecond - degreeThird - degree 23Treatment of BurnsDo not remove anything sticking to the burnDo not apply butter, lotions, or ointmentsCool with large amounts of waterCover with sterile sheet or plastic bag24Apply Your KnowledgeUsing Figure 24-5, determine burn severity for a patient who has burnt his anterior face, and both arms.Click for Figure 24-5 Rule of Nines25Rule of NinesBack26Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerHead = 9%Both arms, hands, and shoulders = 18% + 18%9% + 18% + 18% = 45%Using Figure 24-5, determine burn severity for a patient who has burnt his head and both arms.27Summary Medical Assistant Skin is the body’s outer covering and its largest organ. You need to have knowledge of the integumentary system in order to assist the physician to care for patients with diseases of the skin.28End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 29
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