Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 32: The Endocrine System

Objectives 32-1 Describe the general functions of the endocrine system. 32-2 Compare the endocrine and exocrine glands. 32-3 Define hormone. 32-4 Describe the locations of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands,adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, and gonads. 32-5 List the hormones released by the pituitary gland and give the functions of each. 32-6 List the hormones released by the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands, and give the functions of each.

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Medical Assisting Chapter 32PowerPoint® to accompanyRamutkowski • Booth • Pugh • Thompson • WhickerChapterCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Second Edition1The Endocrine SystemObjectives32-1 Describe the general functions of the endocrine system.32-2 Compare the endocrine and exocrine glands.32-3 Define hormone.32-4 Describe the locations of the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands,adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, and gonads.32-5 List the hormones released by the pituitary gland and give the functions of each.32-6 List the hormones released by the thyroid gland and parathyroid glands, and give the functions of each.2The Endocrine SystemObjectives (cont.)32-7 List the hormones released by the adrenal glands and give the functions of each.32-8 List the hormones released by the pancreas and give the functions of each.32-9 List the hormones released by the thymus and gonads, and give the function of each.32-10 Describe the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various endocrine disorders.3The Endocrine SystemThe endocrine system includes the organs of the body that secrete hormones directly into body fluids such as blood.glandssecretehormonesintobloodstreamtotarget tissues4HormonesHormones are chemicals secreted by a cell that affects the functions of other cells.Many hormones are derived from steroids that can easily cross the cell membrane .Examples of steroid hormones:EstrogenProgesteroneTestosteroneCortisolhormones5Hormones (cont.)Nonsteroid HormonesMade of amino acids or proteinsCannot cross the cell membrane with easeBinds to receptors on the surface of the cellsG-protein is usually activated by the hormone-receptor complex.ProstaglandinsLocal hormonesDerived from lipid moleculesTypically do not travel into the blood streamTarget tissues are located close byProduced by organs such as the: Kidneys  Uterus Heart  Brain Stomach6This gland is located at the base of the brain and is controlled by the hypothalamus.A bony structure called the sella turcica protects the pituitary gland. The optic chiasm is located just above the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is divided into two lobes:Anterior LobePosterior LobePituitary Gland7AnteriorLobeGrowth HormoneProlactinAdrenocorticotrophicThyroid-stimulatingFollicle-stimulatingLuteinizingStimulates increase in size of muscles and bones.Stimulates milk productionStimulates the adrenal cortex to release its hormonesStimulates the thyroid gland to release its hormones.In females stimulates estrogen production and maturation of the ova. In males, it stimulates sperm production.Stimulates ovulation in females and estrogen production. Stimulates production of testosterone in malesPituitary Gland8PosteriorLobeAntidiuretic HormoneOxytocinStimulates the kidneys to conserve waterIn females causes contraction of the uterus and ejection of breast milk.Pituitary Gland (cont.)9Apply Your KnowledgeThe medical assistant in a local medical office is about to administer an injection of cortisol. The patient asks “Once you inject that steriod in my arm, why won’t it affect my arm and other body parts?” Which of the following would best answer this patient’s question?Hormones do not affect any cells.Cortisol is not a hormone so there is no need for concern.Hormones have specific target cells that they bind with.10Apply Your Knowledge - AnswerThe medical assistant in a local medical office is about to administer an injection of cortisol. The patient asks “Once you inject that steriod in my arm, why won’t it affect my arm and other body parts?” Which of the following would best answer this patient’s question?Hormones do not affect any cells.Cortisol is not a hormone so there is no need for concern.Hormones have specific target cells that they bind with.11Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid GlandsThyroid Gland Located below the larynx Is covered by a capsule Is divided into follicles that store some of the hormonesMajor HormonesStimulate protein synthesis and increase cellular energy productionLowers blood calcium levels by activating osteoblastsCalcitoninThyroid HormonesT3 T412Parathyroid Glands Most people have four parathyroid glands These glands are located on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. They secrete the parathyroid hormone (PTH)Parathyroid hormone acts to raise the blood calcium levels by activating osteoclasts.Thyroid Gland and Parathyroid Glands (cont.)13Adrenal GlandsLocated on top of each kidneyDivided into the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortexAdrenal MedullaAdrenal Cortex central portion secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine secretions prepare the body for the stress response outermost portion aldosterone and cortisol are the main two hormones secreted14PancreasLocated behind the stomachConsidered as both an endocrine and exocrine glandContains structures known as islets of Langerhans which secretes insulin and glucagonInsulinGlucagonBlood glucose concentrationsProtein synthesisBlood glucose concentrationsProtein synthesis15A surgical patient is considered to have experienced physical external stress. All of the following are symptoms associated with stress except:Increased blood pressureDecreased blood glucoseIncreased heart rateApply Your Knowledge16A surgical patient is considered to have experienced physical external stress. All of the following are symptoms associated with stress except:Increased blood pressureDecreased blood glucoseIncreased heart rateApply Your Knowledge - Answer17Other Hormone Producing OrgansThe Pineal Body Located between the cerebral hemispheres Secretes melatoninThe Thymus Gland Located between the lungs Secretes thymosinThe Gonads Ovaries and testes Ovaries release estrogen and progesterone Testes produce testosteroneOther Sites Stomach produces gastrin Small intestines release secretin and cholecystokinin Heart secretes atrial natriuretic peptide Kidneys secrete erythropoietin18The Stress ResponseA stressor is any stimulus that produces stress.Types of Stressors Physical Factors  Psychological Factors  Positive FactorsThe Body's Physiologic Response To StressThe body’s response consist of a group of reactions called the general stress syndrome which is caused by the release of hormones. Heart rate  Breathing rate  Blood pressure Glucose levels19Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine SystemCausesIncreased productions of the growth hormone or a tumor.Signs and SymptomsEnlargement of skull, and hands and feet bonesThickening of the skinHeadache, fatigue, pain, weight gain, heart disease TreatmentMedications to decrease growth hormone productionRadiation therapySurgeryAcromegaly20Addison's DiseaseCommon Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)CausesSpecific causes unknown but may be due to cancer, or an autoimmune dysfunctionSigns and SymptomsWeakness, fatigue, dizziness, weight loss, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea and dehydrationTreatmentCorticosteriods Medications or hormones to balance sodium and potassium levels21Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)Causes Excessive production of ACTH (adrenal gland tumor) Long-term use of steriodsSigns and SymptomsRound or full face, hump of fat between the shoulders, fatigue, thin arms and legs with large abdomen, high blood pressure, high blood glucose levelsTreatment Lifestyle changes Radiation and surgery for tumor removalCushing's Disease22Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)CausesDecreased or absent production of insulin by the pancreasObesity, high blood pressure, pregnancy, high cholesterol levelsSigns and SymptomsHigh blood glucose levels, excessive thirst, frequent urination, increased appetite, blurred vision, slow wound healing, weight loss, foot problems, impotence in menTreatmentInsulin (injection and oral tablets)Lifestyle changesComplicationsKidney disease, blindness, atherosclerosis, amputationsDiabetes Mellitus23Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.) CausesUnderproduction of the growth hormoneTrauma to pituitary gland or pituitary tumorSigns and SymptomsShort height, abnormal facial features, cleft lip or palate, delayed puberty, headache, frequent urination, thirstTreatmentAdminister supplemental growth hormoneDwarfism24Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)CausesOverproduction of the growth hormone or a pituitary tumorSigns and SymptomsVery tall height, delayed sexual maturity, thick facial bones, thick skin, weakness, vision problemsTreatmentMedications to decrease growth hormone levelsRadiation therapy or surgery for tumorGigantism25Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)CausesOver production of thyroid hormonesAlso considered an autoimmune disorderSigns and SymptomsExophthalmos, goiter, insomnia, weight loss, muscle weakness, increased appetite, vision problems, increased heart rateTreatmentMedicationsRadiation and surgery to the thyroid glandGrave's Disease26Common Diseases and Disorders of the Endocrine System (cont.)CausesRemoval of the thyroid gland, neck radiation treatments and obesitySigns and SymptomsWeakness, fatigue, weight gain, depression, dry skin, general body aches, pale or yellow skin, slow heart rate, enlarged heart, comaTreatmentSupplemental thyroid hormonesClose monitoring of thyroid hormone levelsMyxedema27A patient enters the medical office with complaints of fatigue and body aches. You notice that the patient’s arms are thin and the abdomen appears enlarged. The physician states to you “ This looks like a case of hypercortisolism.” You realize this refers to which of the following diseases? Cushing’s disease Addison’s disease Diabetes mellitusApply Your Knowledge28A patient enters the medical office with complaints of fatigue and body aches. You notice that the patient’s arms are thin and the abdomen appears enlarged. The physician states to you “ This looks like a case of hypercortisolism.” You realize this refers to which of the following diseases? Cushing’s disease Addison’s disease Diabetes mellitusApply Your Knowledge - Answer29End of ChapterEND OF CHAPTER30