Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 35: The Reproductive System

Objectives 35-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter. 35-2 List the organs of the male reproductive system and give the locations, structures, and functions of each. 35-3 Describe how sperm cells are formed. 35-4 List the actions of testosterone. 35-5 Describe the substances found in semen. 35-6 Explain the process of circumcision.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 351Objectives35-1 Spell, define, and correctly use the Key Terms in this chapter.35-2 List the organs of the male reproductive system and give the locations, structures, and functions of each.35-3 Describe how sperm cells are formed.35-4 List the actions of testosterone.35-5 Describe the substances found in semen.35-6 Explain the process of circumcision.The Reproductive System2Objectives (cont.)35-7 Describe the processes or erection and ejaculation.35-8 List the organs of the female reproductive system and give the locations, structures, and functions of each.35-9 Explain how eggs develop.35-10 List the actions of estrogen and progesterone.35-11 Explain how and when ovulation occurs.The Reproductive System335-12 Describe what happens to an egg after ovulation occurs.35-13 List the purpose and events of the menstrual cycle.35-14 Define menopause and explain what causes it.35-15 Explain how and where fertilization occurs.35-16 Describe the process of implantation.35-17 Explain the difference between an embryo and a fetus.The Reproductive SystemObjectives (cont.)435-18 Describe the changes that occur to the mother during pregnancy.35-19 Describe the birth process.35-20 List several birth control methods and explain why they are effective. 35-21 List the causes and treatments of infertility.35-22 List the most common sexually transmitted diseases and give the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of each.The Reproductive SystemObjectives (cont.)535-23 Describe the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various disorders of the male reproductive organs.35-24 Describe the signs, symptoms, causes, and treatments of various disorders of the female reproductive organs.The Reproductive SystemObjectives (cont.)6Introduction Male and female reproductive systems function together to produce offspring Female reproductive system also nurtures a developing offspring Male and female reproductive systems also produce a number of important hormones Click Pictures for Larger Views7Female Reproductive SystemBackName the structures that are unique to the female reproductive system?8Male Reproductive SystemBackName the structures that are unique to the male reproductive system?9TestesPrimary organs Produces the sex cells (sperm) of the male Produces male hormone testosterone Scrotum – sac that holds the testes just below the pelvic cavity Seminiferous tubules – on top of testes; filled with spermatogenic cells (sperm)Male Reproductive System 10Male Reproductive SystemInterstitial cells that make testosteroneSperm cells do not mature until they go to the epididymis Spermatogenesis11Apply Your KnowledgeName two functions of the testes?12Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerTo produce male hormone testosteroneTo produce the sex cells (sperm)Name two functions of the testes?13SpermatogenesisSpermatogonia (46 chromosomes)Mitosis makes-primary spermatocytesAt puberty meiosis divides to make two secondary spermatocytes Divides - two spermatids = 4 spermatids Develop flagella to become mature sperm cells with 23 chromosomes14Testosterone Stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics Chest hair Thick facial hair Enlarged muscles Enlarged bonesThickening of vocal cords that produces a deep voice Stimulates the maturation of male reproductive organs15Semen Mixture of sperm cells Fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate gland and bulbourethral glands. Is alkaline and contains nutrients and prostaglandins. One milliliter of sperm usually contains about 120 million sperm cells 16Erection, Orgasm, and Ejaculation Erectile tissue of the penis becomes engorged with blood, which produces the erection of the penis. During orgasm, sperm cells are propelled out of the testes toward the urethra.Fluids from the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands are also released into the urethra. Ejaculation occurs when semen is forced out of the urethra.17Diseases and Disorders of the Male Reproductive SystemEpididymitis - inflammation of an epididymis Causes Bacteria – especially those that cause gonorrhea and chlamydiaUse of certain medicationsPlacement of catheter in urethraTreatmentAntibiotics for patient and sexual partner of patientPain medications18Diseases and Disorders of the Male Reproductive System (cont.)Erectile dysfunction (impotence) - cannot maintain an erect penis to complete sexual intercourse. Causes by medical disorders or any of the following:Low testosterone productionAnemiaVarious medicationsSmokingExcessive alcohol consumptionAnxietyDepression 19Prostate cancer - third most common cause of cancer deaths in men of all ages; most frequently occurs in men over 40 Causes:High levels of PSA in blood (a specific type of antigen)Trouble urinatingPainful urinationPain in lower back or abdomenPain during bowel movementsDiseases and Disorders of the Male Reproductive System (cont.)20Prostatitis - inflammation of the prostate glandCauses Bacterial infection Catheter in urethraTrauma to urethra or urinary bladderScarring of urethra or prostate due to frequent infectionsExcess alcohol consumptionDiseases and Disorders of the Male Reproductive System (cont.)21Apply Your KnowledgeYour patient has an elevated PSA.What may this indicate?22Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Elevations of the PSA may indicate prostate cancer.Your patient has an elevated PSA.What may this indicate?23Female Reproductive SystemOvaries Primary sex organs of the female since they produce the sex cells (eggs) of the female Produce estrogen and progesterone Two ovaries about 3.5 cm long and are located in the pelvic cavity on each side of the uterus24OogenesisThe process of egg cell formation:At onset of puberty primary oocytes are stimulated to continue meiosis Primary oocyte divides and becomes 1 polar body (a nonfunctional cell) and a secondary oocyte Secondary oocyte is released from an ovary each month during ovulation. If oocyte is fertilized, it divides to form a mature fertilized egg cell25Female Reproductive SystemInternal Accessory OrgansUterine tubesInfundibulumUterus Endometrium, Myometrium Perimetrium VaginaInternal Female Reproductive OrgansClick picture for larger view.26Internal Female OrgansBack27Hormonal Control Estrogen and progesterone: Stimulate enlargement of reproductive organsProduction of secondary sex characteristics. Breast developmentIncreased vascularization of the skin Increased fat deposits in the breasts, thighs, and hips 28Female Reproductive Cycle Menstrual cycle is the regular changes in the uterine lining that leads to a monthly period or bleeding.Anterior pituitary releases FSH. FSH stimulates an ovarian follicle to mature Maturing follicle secretes estrogen that causes the uterine lining to thicken 29Female Reproductive CycleAnterior pituitary releases a sudden surge of LH that triggers ovulation After ovulation, follicular cells of the follicle become a corpus luteum Corpus luteum secretes progesterone which causes the uterine lining to become more vascular and glandularWithout fertilization of ovum, corpus luteum degenerates and estrogen and progesterone levels fall starting menses30MenopauseThe termination of the menstrual cycle due to normal aging of the ovaries 31Apply Your KnowledgeA young teenage patient is expressing concerns about her breasts not growing. What should you tell her?32Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerYou would tell her that her secondary sex characteristic of breast enlargement will occur as she continues into puberty. You also tell her that you will inform the physician of her concerns.A young teenage patient is expressing concerns about her breasts not growing. What should you tell her?33FertilizationEgg is released from an ovary and travels through a uterine tubeOnly one sperm usually unites with the egg to fertilize itReleases enzymes that prevent other sperms from invading it 34ImplantationEmbryonic period Rapid cell division known as cleavage Ball of cells called a morula Travels down the uterine tube to the uterus adds fluid called a blastocyst Blastocyst implants in the wall of the uterus 35Prenatal PeriodEmbryonic period weeks 2 through 8 of pregnancyFetal period weeks 9 to delivery of offspringgrowth of the offspring is rapid 36PregnancyCells of the embryo begin to secrete HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin). HCG maintains the corpus luteum so it will continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone. Placenta also secretes large amount of progesterone and estrogen. Lactogen then stimulates the enlargement of the mammary glands. 37Birth ProcessBirth process ends pregnancy Begins when progesterone levels fall Uterine contractions are no longer inhibited and the uterus secretes prostaglandins Stimulates uterine contractions Oxytocin stimulates strong uterine contractions until the birth process ends 38Birth Control MethodsCoitus interruptus Rhythm method Mechanical barriers Chemical barriers Oral contraceptives Injectable contraception Contraceptive implants Intrauterine devicesSurgical methods 39InfertilityInability to conceive a child Male causes:ImpotenceRetrograde ejaculationLow or absent sperm countUse of various medications or drugsDecreased testosterone productionScarring of male reproductive tract from sexually transmitted diseases40Infertility (cont.)Inability to conceive a child Female causes:Scarring of uterine tubes from sexually transmitted diseasesPelvic inflammatory diseaseInadequate dietLack of ovulationLack of menstrual cyclesEndometriosis 41Apply Your KnowledgeYour patient has just been told that she is pregnant, but she does not understand why she could get pregnant. She states, “ I have been using the rhythm method of birth control very carefully.” What patient teaching would you do to assist her to understand?42Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerThe rhythm method is not as effective as other birth control, because it is sometime difficult to tell when ovulation occurs.Your patient has just been told that she is pregnant, but she does not understand why she could get pregnant. She states, “ I have been using the rhythm method of birth control very carefully.” What patient teaching would you do to assist her to understand?43Sexually Transmitted DiseasesSTDs caused by bacteria ChlamydiaSyphilisGonorrheaPelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Herpes simplex 2 Crabs Trichimonas 44Diseases and Disorders - Female Reproductive System CancerBreastCervical Ovarian Uterine Treatment includes:Radiation therapyChemotherapySurgery to remove cancerous organ45Diseases and Disorders - Female Reproductive System (cont.)Cervicitis - defined as inflammation of the cervix Signs and Symptoms:Frequent vaginal dischargePain during intercourseVaginal bleeding after intercourse46Dysmenorrhea - the condition of experience severe menstrual cramps that limit normal daily activities Causes:Pelvic inflammatory diseaseFibroid tumors in uterusEndometriosisOvarian cystsAbnormally high levels of prostaglandinsMultiple sexual partnersDiseases and Disorders - Female Reproductive System (cont.)47Endometriosis - a condition in which tissues that make up the lining of the uterus grow outside the uterusSigns and symptoms:Heavy bleeding from uterusInfertilityPain in abdomen or pelvisPainful periodsPain during sexual intercourseDiseases and Disorders - Female Reproductive System (cont.)48Fibrocystic breast disease - the presence of abnormal tissue in the breastsFibroids - noncancerous tumors that grow in the uterine wall Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) - a collection of symptoms that occur about the same time as a menstrual period Vaginitis - the condition of having an abnormal vaginal discharge Diseases and Disorders - Female Reproductive System (cont.)49Apply Your KnowledgeYour patient has been diagnosed with endometriosis. What is the usual treatment for this disease?50Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerPain medications, various hormone therapies, removal of uterus, laser surgery to remove endometrial tissue outside uterus or use of oral contraceptives. Your patient has been diagnosed with endometriosis. What is the usual treatment for this disease?51Summary Medical AssistantKnowledge of the reproductive system will assist you in providing care for the patient with diseases and disorders of the reproductive system. 52End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 53