Bài giảng Risk and change management

12. Estimation best practices Q12: A source of some confusion, I graded quite leniently (and allowed trade-offs with Q15) Estimate iteratively Know presentation techniques Q3, +/- 2 months, 90% probability Hierarchical breakdown of major activities Not: dependencies, durations

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Software Project Management Session 7: Risk and Change Management Today Exam Review Risk Management Feature Set Control Change Control Configuration Management Session 6 Review The exam MS-Project A fuller, slower review next week Exam Review 1. Phases A reference model Many other models are just as good or valid 2. Tradeoff Triangle Dependency of 3 sides Determining which is fixed or most important to customer Balance Give-and-take Often choose two Exam Review 3. Project & Program PMI definition Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service Program as set of related projects Not just a ‘continuous process’, that could be manufacturing Exam Review 4. Methodology/Context Some ‘iterative’ process Spiral Methodology Risk reduction Evolutionary Prototyping Early, active user feedback Tradeoffs Speed vs. Accuracy Risks Uncertainty, code-and-fix, lack of scope clarity Exam Review 5. Man-Month People & months are not interchangeable 12 months / 2 people != 6 months Communications overhead, ex: n(n-1)/2 Software not like bricklaying Adding to late makes later Pouring gas on the fire Also: Optimism, gutless estimating Exam Review 6. Requirements Importance Where the real scope of project defined Defects introduced here are very costly to fix later Issues Developer-Customer conflict Uncertainty Lack of support Forgotten requirements Exam Review 7. Waterfall risk No visible product until late in process Rigid phases Heavy reliance on documentation Difficulty in identifying all requirements up front 8. Pro/Con 2 other methodologies Spiral, Prototyping, V-Model Waterfall variations: ‘modified’ XP, RUP, Sashimi (modified waterfall) Exam Review 9. Organizational Types Functional, project, matrix Pros & Cons What it means to a PM Exam Review 10. Critical Path define + resources Longest sequence of activities Zero total slack Resources issues Conflicts and dependencies May force recalculation of path “Default” CPM method doesn’t include this Exam Review 11. Concept Exploration documents SOW More detailed Can be used in Contracts Project Charter Higher-level overview Other: RFP Exam Review 12. Estimation best practices Q12: A source of some confusion, I graded quite leniently (and allowed trade-offs with Q15) Estimate iteratively Know presentation techniques Q3, +/- 2 months, 90% probability Hierarchical breakdown of major activities Not: dependencies, durations Exam Review 13. Three WBS Types Process Product Hybrid Others: Geographic, Organizational Exam Review 14. Fast tracking and crashing Crashing sounds worse than it is 3 ways discussed Add resources, limit requirements, change task sequence Fast tracking Overlapping of activities Exam Review 15. Size Estimation Techniques Expert Judgment Analogy Parametric FP, LOC Delphi Exam Review 16. Dependencies Mandatory: “hard”, dev. before QA External: vendor or client Discretionary: PM determines, “soft” Resource Not really the FS, SF, SS, FF Exam Review 18. PMI Process Groups A: C, Directing is *not* one of the five 19. Org. structure and PM power A: A, Projectized (2nd is B, strong matrix) 20. Increase risk A: C, Fast tracking (overlap tasks = risk) 21. Network diagram critical path A: D, A/B/D/F/K: 14 days 22. Total slack A: D, 5 days Risk Management Problems that haven’t happened yet Why is it hard? Some are wary of bearing bad news No one wants to be the messenger Or seen as “a worrier” You need to define a strategy early in your project Risk Management Identification, Analysis, Control Goal: avoid a crisis Thayer: Risk Mgmt. vs. Project Mgt. For a specific vs. all projects Proactive vs. reactive Project Risk Characterized by: Uncertainty (0 Excel Up to 10-1 differences in prog. size w/same specs. Change Control Board (CCB) McConnell “best practice” Structure: representatives from each stakeholder party Dev., QA, Marketing, Mgmt., Customer support Perform “change analysis” Importance, priority, cost, benefit Triage Allocating scare resources Some will not receive treatment Life-critical to the project Will say “No” more than “Yes” Watch for bureaucracy Change Control “Quality Software Project Management”, Futrell, Shafer, Shafer Configuration Control A management support function Includes Program code changes Requirements and design changes Version release changes Essential for developed items Code, documentation, etc. Example The case of the code that used to work But didn’t in time for the demo Configuration Control Terminology Software Configuration Control Item (SCCI) a.k.a. Source Item (SI) Anything suitable for configuration control Source code, documents, diagrams, etc. Change Control: process of controlling changes Proposal, evaluation, approval, scheduling, implementation, tracking Version Control: controlling software version releases Recording and saving releases Documenting release differences Configuration Control: process of evaluating, approving and disapproving, and managing changes to SCCIs. SCM Software Configuration Management Formal engineering discipline Methods and tools to identify & manage software throughout its use Configuration Control Needs Establish clearly defined mgmt. Authority Setup control standards, procedures and guidelines All team members must be aware of these Requires appropriate tools and infrastructure Configuration Management Plan must be produced during planning phase Often part of Software Development Plan Maintenance SCM is very important during all phases starting with Requirements Continues to be important during Maintenance Homework McConnell: 11 “Motivation”, 13 “Team Structure” Schwalbe: 8 “Project Human Resource Management” Earned Value URL: See class web site Top 10 Risk List for your project Questions?
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