Báo chí truyền thông - Chapter 10: Broadcast television

History Contemporary Broadcast Television Television in the Digital Age Defining Features of Broadcast Television Organization of the Broadcast Television Industry Ownership in the Television Industry Producing Television Programs Economics Public Broadcasting Home Video Feedback

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Broadcast Television Chapter 10 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER OUTLINEHistoryContemporary Broadcast TelevisionTelevision in the Digital AgeDefining Features of Broadcast TelevisionOrganization of the Broadcast Television IndustryOwnership in the Television Industry Producing Television ProgramsEconomicsPublic BroadcastingHome VideoFeedback2HISTORY1920s-1930sPhilo FarnsworthVladimir ZworykinWWII: FCC halted development of TV1948: TV’s growth so rapid the FCC imposed freeze on new station licenses1952: FCC established rules to minimize interference – 12 VHF and 70 UHF channels3The 1950s: Networks, Tape, UHF, and ColorTV modeled after radioLocal stations affiliated with networks1956, Ampex developed videotapeBy 1960, most programs were tapedUHF channels didn’t compete wellNetwork color broadcasts began, up to about 3 hours per day by 19604The Golden Age of Television1950s growth and experimentationPioneering programs:Ed Sullivan’s Toast of the Town; Milton Berle’s Texaco Star TheaterHigh quality dramas: Studio OneAdult westerns: Gunsmoke5Coming of Age: Television in the 1960s1960: TVs in more than 95% of US homes1965: TV news expands from 15 to 30 minutesTV journalism earns praise (Kennedy, Civil Rights; moon walk)1967: Public Broadcasting Act establishes PBSCable grows during the 1960sEscapist/fantasy fare dominates6The 1970s: Growing Public ConcernSurgeon General’s report on violent TVModest connection between heavy viewing and violence among some childrenCitizen groups (Action for Children’s Television; minority group coalitions) influenced broadcast policyCable industry began competing with TVProgramming trends included crime drama, then adult sitcoms, then prime time soap operas7The 1980s and 1990s: Increased CompetitionContinuing erosion of the big 3 networks’ audiencesIncreased competition from new networks and cable channels8Cable’s Continued GrowthBy 2000, cable reached more than 68% of the populationChannel capacity increased and new programming services emergedCable full-fledged competitor to broadcast TV9Zipping, Zapping, Grazing, and DBSVCR in 90% of US households by 2000VCR impact on broadcast and cable TVTime shifting, zapping, zipping, grazingLow-power television (LPTV)Direct broadcast by satellite (DBS)Telecommunications Act of 1996TV program ratings and V-chipProgramming trends: 1980s family-oriented sitcoms; 1990s newsmagazines; 2000s reality programs and cable dramas10CONTEMPORARY BROADCAST TELEVISIONAudiences are shrinkingAdvertising dollars going to webBig Four networks using new distribution channelsDigital Video Recorders (DVRs)Increasing in number; replacing VCRsGreater reliance on reality shows than scripted showsTV is on an average of 8 hours per day.Broadcast networks still best way for advertisers to reach audiences11TELEVISION IN THE DIGITAL AGEFebruary 17, 2009: Official transition from analog to digital TV broadcastingAdvantages of digital television (DTV)Clearer pictures and soundMore rectangular formatAllows high definition TV (HDTV)Channel can be subdivided and multiple programs can be sent at the same time12Broadcasters Discover the WebMore programs available on the InternetBroadcasters’ web sites offering moreFull-screen, high-resolution streaming videoOriginal online contentSocial networking optionsMySpace pagesAdvertising on sites and in streaming videoPodcastsLocal stations still need to do more13Broadcasters and BroadbandBroadband: High-speed internet connectionsCable modem; DSLSupports sending video over webNetworks offer special-interest (non-broadcast) content via broadbandNot yet profitable, but not too riskyReach younger audiences14Mobile TVBroadcasters supplying content to cell phonesMobiTVMobile pedestrian handheld technology15User-Generated Content Broadcasters were first to realize potential of user-generated contentAmerica’s Funniest Home VideosHow to relate to video sharing giants such as YouTube?16DEFINING FEATURES OF BROADCAST TELEVISIONUniversal medium, in about 99% of US homesTV on for about 8 hours per dayDominant US medium for news and entertainmentExpensiveAudience continues to fragment17ORGANIZATION OF THE BROADCAST TELEVISION INDUSTRYCommercial or noncommercial stationsLicensed by FCC to serve community210 such “markets” in US6 commercial networks plus PBSNetwork affiliatesIndependents18ProductionLocal productionNetwork programsSyndicated programsOff-net series19DistributionDistribution outletsBroadcast networks, cable networks, syndication companiesNetwork-affiliate contractLocal station carries network programsNetwork pays station (compensation)Compensation is decreasing and may be eliminatedSyndication companies lease content to individual stations in local marketsProfitable aftermarket for prime time TV series20ExhibitionAbout 1300 commercial stations & 380 noncommercial stationsVHF (very high frequency, 2-13) or UHF (ultra high frequency, 14-69)With cable, differences between VHF and UHF are less important; will be still less important with digital TVMost local stations are network affiliates 21OWNERSHIP IN THE TELEVISION INDUSTRYAll major networks are owned by conglomeratesNBC - General ElectricABC - Walt DisneyCBS - CBS Corp, spun off from ViacomFox - News CorporationCW - Joint venture CBS & Time WarnerMyNetwork TV - News CorporationTelecommunications Act of 1996No ownership limit unless combined reach exceeds 39% of US populationBig groups control most TV stations in top 100 markets22PRODUCING TELEVISION PROGRAMSMany people are involved in getting programs on the air23Departments and StaffStationStation manager, sales, engineering, production/programming, news, administrationNetworkSales, entertainment, owned and operated stations, affiliate relation, news, sports, standards, operations24Getting TV Programs on the AirLocal station: Local newscast is keyAlso interviews, sports showsNetwork: Prime time programming is key8:00-11:00 p.m., EasternPrime time programsProgram ideas, sample scripts, pilotsAbout 25 pilots per network per year25ECOMONICSTV industry has been profitable since 1950Ad revenue increased every year since 1971Changes in the industry are affecting the bottom line of networks and stations26Commercial TimeThree types of advertisersNational advertisersNational spot advertisersLocal advertisersBigger ratings=higher costs for airtimeTV shows also generate revenue fromProduct placementText messaging fees27Where Did the Money Go?Network programming is expensive30:00 sitcom: $1 million per episode60:00 show: about $3 million per episodeQuiz and reality shows are a lot cheaper28PUBLIC BROADCASTINGPublic broadcasting has existed in the US for more than 40 years29A Short History1967 Public Broadcasting ActCorporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB)Public Broadcasting System (PBS)Internal disputes regarding programmingCompetition from cable channelsReduced funding – political issueStations looking for other funding sources30Programming and FinancingTension between local stations and centralized PBS organization1990: moved toward more centralized programming. Ratings remain lowSesame Street; Nova354 PBS stations; licensed by FCC Licensed to 169 community organizations, universities, states/citiesFunding from government, viewer contributions, businesses, grants, etc.PBS moving slowly into digital age 31HOME VIDEODVDs & VCRs common in US householdsDVRs (Digital Video Recorders) gaining groundVCRs and DVRs can time-shiftHome video industry functions:Production (motion picture studios dominate)Distribution (record-like rack jobbers dominate)Retail (retail and department stores)DVD opened new aftermarket for TV Retailers concerned about video on demand and premium channels32FEEDBACKThe television industry seeks feedback in a variety of ways33Measuring TV ViewingDemographic data and viewing behaviorNielsen Media Research Network ratings:Nielsen Television IndexPeople Meter, national sample = 5000Testing Portable People Meter (PPM)Nielsen Local-Market TV Ratings200 markets, 4 times per year (sweeps)Diary/electronic meteringNielsen hopes to phase out paper diaries34Ratings ReportingRating: Number of households watching a program, divided by the total number of TV householdsShare: Number of households watching a program, divided by number of households actually watching TV at that timeSweeps (Feb, May, July, Nov) Local market people meters will decrease importance of traditional sweeps periodsDetermining accuracy of ratingsMedia Ratings Council (previously Electronic Media Ratings Council; EMRC) set up to monitor, audit, accredit broadcast ratings servicesSample size: statistically, 5000 is acceptableOther criticisms may deserve closer attention35Questionnaires, Concept Testing, and Pilot TestingQuestionnaires: Networks ask people about their tastes, opinions, beliefsConcept testing: Networks ask people for reactions to paragraphs describing possible new programsPilot testing: Networks show people sample programs and ask for evaluations.36Television Audiences TV is entrenched in American lifeTV set in 99% of homes; 75% have more than one setTV is on for eight hours per day; average person watches more than three hoursViewing is heaviest: During prime timeIn winter (lightest in July/August)In low-income householdsAmong people with lower educationsAmong females37
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