Báo chí truyền thông - Chapter 13: News gathering and reporting

Deciding What is News News Reporting in the Digital Age Categories Of News and Reporting The News Flow The Wire Services Media Differences in News Coverage Readership and Viewership

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News Gathering and Reporting Chapter 13 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER OUTLINEDeciding What is NewsNews Reporting in the Digital AgeCategories Of News and ReportingThe News FlowThe Wire ServicesMedia Differences in News CoverageReadership and Viewership 2DECIDING WHAT IS NEWSTimelinessProximityProminenceConsequenceHuman InterestEconomics3NEWS REPORTING IN THE DIGITAL AGEThe digital revolution has changed reporting.4More Sources of NewsInternet increased number of news sourcesGeneral news sitesNews aggregatorsSpecialized news sites5BlogsRepresent another source of newsCan have an agenda setting effectCan provide check on traditional mediaProvide additional outlet for reportersMake it possible for everyone to be a reporter6Citizen JournalismOrdinary citizens become amateur reportersFacilitated by digital and cell phone video cameras, high speed Internet accessTraditional media encourage citizen journalismNews organizations no longer monopolize what’s reported and how7Hyperlocal NewsCoverage of stories of interest to very small communitySingle ZIP codeInterest group in defined areaMost hyperlocal news appears on web sitesPublishers hope will draw in people who don’t generally consume news8The Converged JournalistHas skills of print journalist and video journalistBackpack journalistsMobile journalists (mojos)9New ToolsInternet allows reporters to access wide variety of information while at their desksMust learn how to use these toolsComputer-assisted reporting10CATEGORIES OF NEWS AND REPORTINGNews can be broken down into broad categories11Hard NewsTraditional fact-oriented journalismWho, what, where, when, why, howPrint mediaInverted pyramid formatLeadBroadcast mediaSquare formatOnline mediaVaried writing styles12Soft NewsFeaturesWide range of topicsHuman interestInverted pyramid styleMore common on TV than radio13Investigative ReportsSignificant information about matters of public importanceNon-routine methodsLonger than typical news itemBloggers 14THE NEWS FLOWMany gatekeepers in print and broadcast newsOnline reporting may have fewer gatekeepersBloggers15Print MediaSources of print newsStaff reports & wire servicesOther contributing sources, less importantStaffCity editorBeat reportersGeneral assignment reportersCopy deskManaging editor & assistant managing editorAll are gatekeepers16Broadcast MediaSources of broadcast newsLocal reporters & wire servicesSyndicated news servicesNetwork feedsStaffNews directorExecutive producer & producersAssignment editorReporters and anchors (most reporters are general assignment reporters)Camera crews, sound editors, writers, etcAll are gatekeepers17Online MediaNews flow and production process similar to traditional mediaTop executivesEditorsStaff membersReporters18THE WIRE SERVICESTwo biggest wire servicesAP: Associated PressUPI: United Press InternationalWire services provide most of the news about what’s going on outside the local communityOther wire services compete with AP & UPI19MEDIA DIFFERENCES IN NEWS COVERAGEPrint, broadcast, and online media all have strengths and weaknessesAll play crucial role in informing the public20Words and PicturesPrint & online news are organized in space; TV stories organized in timeTV covers fewer stories and in less detailTV better at transmitting experience or impressions; print & online better at facts, information, lengthy analysisNewspapers & online have more permanence; can cover complex stories betterTV has strong visual dimension, but visual is also important to print & online21Print, Online, and Broadcast JournalistsAppearance and personality of reporters are more important in TV than in print and onlineTV newscasters can become starsPrint & online reporters are more anonymous22Similarities Among the News MediaPrint, broadcast, and online journalists share basic values and journalistic principlesHonestyAccuracyBalanceObjectivityMaintaining credibilityCredibility is key in keeping public’s trust23READERSHIP AND VIEWERSHIP Audiences for news have been shrinking and getting olderExcept for Internet, exposure to all sources of news has decreasedAudience has become less likely to trust the media24
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