Báo chí truyền thông - Chapter 9: Motion pictures

History of the Motion Picture Motion Pictures in the Digital Age Defining Features of Motion Pictures Organization of the Film Industry Ownership in the Film Industry Producing Motion Pictures Economics Feedback Movies at Home

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Motion Pictures Chapter 9 © 2009, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.1CHAPTER OUTLINEHistory of the Motion PictureMotion Pictures in the Digital AgeDefining Features of Motion PicturesOrganization of the Film Industry Ownership in the Film IndustryProducing Motion PicturesEconomics FeedbackMovies at Home2HISTORY OF THE MOTION PICTUREMotion pictures (including TV) are possible because of:Phi phenomenon (consecutive light sources appear to be single source that moves)Persistence of vision (see image for split second after it has disappeared)3The Edison LabThomas Edison & William DicksonEdison thought profits would come from hardware salesKinetoscope (1889)Camera and viewing deviceSprocket-fed filmVitascope (1896) Edison’s projection-version Generated novelty interest, didn’t last4The NickelodeonsPublic interest rekindled when films began to be used to tell a story (narrative films)Stationary cameras (Melies’ A Trip to the Moon)Editing and movable cameras (Porter’s The Great Train Robbery)Nickelodeons: 50-90 seat theatersDemand for films soaredNew film studios were created5Zukor and GriffithIntroduced long filmsAdolph Zukor: Queen Elizabeth (4 reels) D. W. Griffith: 1915 Birth of a Nation (3 hours)In response to racist content, films targeting black audiences appearedThe Realization of a Negro’s Ambition (George & Noble Johnson; 1916)6Birth of the MMPCMotion Picture Patents Company (1908)Tried to restrict movie production and distribution to the 9 companies making up the MMPC Leading film and equipment makers pooled their patentsAttempt backfired; independent producers and smaller filmmakers appearedBy 1917, MMPC was powerless7The Star SystemIndependent studios capitalized on popularity of particular actors and actressesFlorence Lawrence, Charlie Chaplin, Mary PickfordUnited Artists: studio created by the starsInterest in stars led to longer movies and more comfortable theaters8Consolidation and GrowthIncreased costs encouraged consolidationFilmmakers became distributors and theater ownersTheater owners bought film studiosBlock booking: theater owners had to book some lower quality films if they wanted to get the top filmsBy 1989, US filmmakers controlled 80% of worldwide film market9The Roaring TwentiesSalaries and production costs skyrocketedUntamed excessesIndustry tried self regulationMotion Picture Producers and Distributors Association helped avert government regulation10The Coming of SoundThe Jazz Singer (1927), Warner BrothersSound film possible since 1918Studios hadn’t wanted to spend money experimenting with soundDouble featuresResponse to Depression’s affect on profitsTechnicolor and animationAdditional efforts to encourage attendance11The Studio Years1930-1950: The studio years1939-1941: most significant period for motion picture achievementGone With the Wind, The Wizard of Oz, Stagecoach, Citizen KaneGovernment brought suit against several studiosCharge: Studios’ vertical control over production, distribution & exhibition presented a monopoly. 1948 ruling: studios must divest themselves of at least one type of holding (most sold their theater chains)Block booking was also prohibited (deprived studios of guaranteed exhibition for all their films)12The Film Industry Reacts to TVLate 1940s: TV cut into movie profitsHollywood fought back:Refused to advertise films on TV; refused to show old films on TV; tried to bar film stars from appearing on TVHollywood tried to woo audiences backTechnology: 3-D, Cinerama Content: “spectacle” films, musicals, adult-oriented themesEventually Hollywood started cooperating with TVLate 1950s began supplying programs to network TV13Realignments: The Film Industry from 1960-1990Major studio power declines & independent productions increaseHollywood works more closely with TVFilm controls loosen; switch from regulating content to regulating audiencesMPAA rating system (G-PG-R-X)Updated in 1985 (PG-13; replace X with NC-17)Film revenue and budgets increase14Contemporary Trends in Motion PicturesChallenges: Piracy and illegal file sharingAdmissions continue to declineBox office revenue has increased but that is due to higher ticket pricesDVD sales/rentals are chief sources of incomeSix big companies dominate the industryModern film content is highly varied15MOTION PICTURES IN THE DIGITAL AGEThe digital revolution is affecting all elements of the motion picture industry16Making Digital MoviesMost special effects are digitally-generatedIn some films, only the actors are realIn some films, not even the actors are real17Digital Distribution to TheatersTraditional distribution (physical)Duplicated copies of celluloid film are sent to theatersDigital distribution (electronic)Can use disc, satellite, optical fiber, InternetEliminates scratches, dust, “gate jitter”Drawback: cost of equipping theaters to handle digital content18Digital Distribution to HomeMultiple sources for digital film contentApple TV, AOL, MovieLink, iTunesLong range popularity remains to be seen19Digital ProjectionNot yet manufactured in large scaleChallenges:Ensure color/sharpness of traditional filmCost ($150,000 per screen)Relatively few movie screens are equipped with digital projectors20Mobile MoviesMovies are probably the least portable of all media, but there are options.Portable DVD players becoming more popularDVD players installed in vehiclesDownload to laptopsExperimenting with films on cell phones21User-Generated ContentGiven the nature of film production, user-generated content is not yet a major part of the medium22DEFINING FEATURES OF MOTION PICTURESMost expensive mass media product: High production, marketing, distribution costsDominated by conglomeratesStrong aesthetic dimension; medium most discussed as art formMovie-going continues to be social experience23ORGANIZATION OF THE FILM INDUSTRYThe film industry can be divided into three areas24ProductionFilms produced by variety of organizations and individualsMajor studios finance/distribute independent filmsMajor studios typically organized aroundFilm productionDistributionTV productionAdministration25DistributionSupplying prints of films to theatersAlso distributes TV programs & DVDsFilm advertising and promotionMost distribution done by large companies26ExhibitionExhibitors over-expanded in the late 1990sBy 2007, about 37,000 screensUpgrades include digital surround sound and stadium seatingMultiplex (12-18 screens per theater) are still the ruleSome exhibitors target older marketImproved soundproofing and concessions; valet parking27OWNERSHIP IN THE FILM INDUSTRYThe film industry is dominated by conglomeratesWalt Disney Company (Disney; Touchstone; Buena Vista)Time Warner (Warner Brothers)Paramount/ViacomSony/MGMNBC UniversalNews Corporation (20th Century Fox)28PRODUCING MOTION PICTURESThere are three main phases in moviemaking29PreproductionWriting the story:Story ideas, treatments, scriptsMeanwhile, producer works on:Financing, talent, behind-the-camera personnel, locations, general investment interest30ProductionActual filming of movie$400,000 - $500,000 per day (moderate budget)Average 70 daysLess than 2 minutes of usable film per day31PostproductionEditingSpecial effectsSoundRelease print32ECONOMICSMovies are expensive medium. In 2007, average film cost $100 million to produce and marketRevenue comes fromUS and foreign box officeDVDMiscellaneous video sources33Financing a FilmFinancing options:Direct loan from distributorPickupLimited partnershipJoint ventureDistributing revenue:Producer and distributor agree on dividing gross receiptsDistributor first to be paidLastly, actual production costs are paid34Dealing with the ExhibitorDistributor’s license sets terms of exhibitionRun length, holdover rights, dates, clearanceFinancial terms include:Split percentageSliding scale90-10 dealConcession sales are major revenue source for theater ownersOnscreen advertising also generates revenue35Promoting a FilmFirst three days are criticalPre-opening media promotion and advertising tries to get people into theaters for opening weekend36FEEDBACKFilm companies get feedback in various ways.37Box OfficeVariety magazine: weekly box-office figuresData provided by Nielsen Entertainment Data Incorporated38Market ResearchAudience research is influentialTest pilot linesTest scriptsTest rough cut of filmsFocus groups are often used to get detailed analyses of audience reactions39Motion Picture AudiencesAverage weekly attendance is decliningAbout 60% of audience is under 40Frequent moviegoers (at least 12/year) account for ¾ of admissionsYoung, single, well-educated, middle class, urbanAttendance highest in July/August, lowest in May and 1st two weeks in December40MOVIES AT HOMEHome video (Hollywood’s biggest revenue source)DVD revenue has not expanded much in recent yearsHigh-definition HD might reinvigorate the marketHome video market driven by big hitsInterval between theatrical and home release is shrinkingPay-per-view (PPV) Premium cable channels41