Impacts of agricultural land acquisition on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and Dong Nguyen ward, Tu Son town, Bac Ninh province

Abstract. A survey of 60 households in Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen wards, Tu Son town, Bac Ninh province indicated that the process of recalling agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization had a profound impact on the socio-economic development here. In the current circumstance, livelihoods have improved significantly in some areas (Dinh Bang Ward), some localities have not yet had sustainable livelihoods (Dong Nguyen Ward). Despite positive changes in the occupational structure, there are existing problems of urban environment and social problems in some new rural areas transforming to urban areas regarding people’s incomes. In order to urbanize firmly, these issues need to be addressed by urban managers.

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HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE DOI: 10.18173/2354-1067.2017-0047 Social Sci., 2017, Vol. 62, Iss. 5, pp. 154-163 This paper is available online at IMPACTS OF AGRICULTURAL LAND ACQUISITION ON SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC ISSUES IN DINH BANGWARD AND DONG NGUYENWARD, TU SON TOWN, BAC NINH PROVINCE Ngo Thi Hai Yen Faculty of Geography, Hanoi National University of Education Abstract. A survey of 60 households in Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen wards, Tu Son town, Bac Ninh province indicated that the process of recalling agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization had a profound impact on the socio-economic development here. In the current circumstance, livelihoods have improved significantly in some areas (Dinh Bang Ward), some localities have not yet had sustainable livelihoods (Dong Nguyen Ward). Despite positive changes in the occupational structure, there are existing problems of urban environment and social problems in some new rural areas transforming to urban areas regarding people’s incomes. In order to urbanize firmly, these issues need to be addressed by urban managers. Keywords: Agricultural land acquisition, Dinh Bang, Dong Nguyen, Tu Son, Bac Ninh. 1. Introduction Tu Son town, Bac Ninh province has been upgraded to fouth- rank city (accoding to Vietnam’s urban classification system) since 2008 [3]. This is a fast-growing urbanization of the town. In 2015, Tu Son has a total of 96,9 thousand urban residents with a 63.9% urban population [1]. In the period of 2005 - 2015, Tu Son has an urban population growth rate of 38,2%, the highest compared to other towns in the province. In the context of rapid urbanization, urban land in Tu Son has also udergone dramatic changes in terms of land size and structure od land use. The area of urban land has increased rapidly from 29.4 hectares (2005) to 6103.8 hectares (2005) [2]. In order to improve the urbanization, in the period of 2005 - 2015, Tu Son has recalled 3,197.3 ha of paddy land for conversion to non-agricultural land. This has had a great impact on the occupational structure, income, urban landscape and living environment in Tu Son, especially urbanized areas such as Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen. . Based on the use of the methodology of sociological survey and the integrated use of a number of other research methods, the author analyzed the effects of agricultural land acquisition on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and Dong Nguyen ward, Tu Son town, Bac Ninh province. Received date: 10/1/2017. Published date: 3/5/2017. Contact: Ngo Thi Hai Yen, e-mail: ngothihaiyen1976@gmail.com 154 Impacts of agricultural land recalls on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and... 2. Content 2.1. The situation of agricultural land acquisition in Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen wards Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen wards in Tu Son town have many similarities and differences in the process of recalling agricultural land for industrialization and urbanization. In order to identify the profound effects from the acquire of agricultural land to some socio-economic issues in fast-urbanized areas, the author conducted a sociological survey of 60 households in these two wards. - The number of households, the qualification of household owner and number of laborers in surveyed households. The author selected 30 households in Dinh Bang ward and 30 households in Dong Nguyen ward to do the sociological research. Of the 60 households, 8% of owners have primary school certificates, 38% have secondary school certificates, 13% of high school and 1% of the owner has no educational certificate. On average, each household has 4 members, the smallest households have only one member, and the households with the most people have 10 members. Of the total population of the surveyed households, the number of under- working aged children was 14,7%, the working-age population was 74,8%, the number of over - working aged population was 10,5%. On average, there are 3 laborers in each household. Of which, the most labor-intensive households are 10, the lowest number of laborers is 0. The total number of working-age people surveyed is 65.6%, 22.2% of them are students and the number of people who do not work for health reasons accounts for 5.2%, the number of people who can not find a job accounts for 7%. - Time and reasons for agricultural land acquisition. Time of land acquisition. The process of agricultural land acquisition in Dong Nguyen ward and Dinh Bang ward lasted from 2000 to 2015. Of the 60 households surveyed, one household’s land was recalled in 2000, 12 households in 2001, 16 households in 2003, 15 households in 2004, one household in 2001, 13 households in 2009 and two households in 2015. The time of land acquisition was more concentrated in the years of 2003 (26,7% of households), in 2004 (25% of households) and in 2009 (21,7% of households). This was the time when Tu Son prepared the qualified standards for upgrading to urban metropolis type IV. Therefore, the agricultural land was recalled for the construction of urban areas and public works. The purposes of land acquisition were different in the 60 households surveyed. 38,3% of households had the land recalled for the construction of industrial zones (these households were mainly in Dong Nguyen ward), 45% of households’ land was recalled for construction of new urban areas (these households were mainly in Dinh Bang ward) and 16,7% of households had land recalled for the construction of public works in urban areas (these households were located in Dinh Bang ward). In Dong Nguyen Ward, the majority of households were reclaimed to 100% of the total area (22/30 households). In Dong Bang, the level of land recalls was evenly distributed. Thus, for households that have been recalled from 90% to 100% of the land area, they will suffer strong and long-term impacts. In Dinh Bang Ward, as the majority of households had the land recalled partially (less than 60%) of agricultural land, they would 155 Ngo Thi Hai Yen suffer less. In particular, there are some cases of land reclamation related to the opening of the new road, the households have many advantages because of the change of housing position, for example the the price of the house has increased. In other words, urban planning has created certain advantages for some families in the process of urbanization. Chart 1. Scale of agricultural land recalled groupped by percentage Chart 2. Scale of agricultural land reclaimed by wards Source: Analyzed from the author’s survey data Chart 1 and Chart 2 show the characteristics of land acquisition by percentage by wards. - Changes in agricultural land area before and after the land recalls. The area of agricultural land in the research area changed greatly before and after the land recalls. According to the results of the survey, before being recalled, the average agricultural land area was 4.12 “sao” per household (1 sao = 360m2). After withdrawal, this number is only 1.28 “sao” / household. As a result, on average, 2.84 “sao” of agricultural land were recovered per household, most of which is rice-growing land. Since this is the main rice growing area of Tu Son in the years before the urbanization, the land recalled here is mainly rice cultivation land. The changes in the area of agricultural land in Tu Son before and after the land recalls clearly shows the trend of urbanization. Table 1. Changes in area of agricultural land Types before and after the land recalls Before land recalls After land recalls Agri. land Rice-growing land Agri. land Rice-growing land Other crops Average 41.23 4.09 12.81 1.29 0.5 Household(s) 60 60 60 59 1 Standard deviation 182.34 177.83 152.54 153.50 Source: Processed from survey data Prior to land acquisition, all 60 households cultivated mainly rice, the average land 156 Impacts of agricultural land recalls on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and... area of rice cultivation was 4.09 sao. After the recall, only 59 households planted rice, the average value was only 1.29 sao. At the same time, one household converted the remaining agricultural land from planting rice to flower, ornamental plant, and organic vegetable due to higher income. This household also rents additional land from some other households (not included in the 60 households surveyed) to expand the production areas. Agricultural land was significantly reduced in both wards, and in Dong Nguyen ward, the agricultural land was reduced drammatically. After the withdrawal, the average land area of Dong Nguyen was only 0.32 sao / household. This indicator of Dinh Bang ward is 2.23 sao / household. Dong Nguyen lost so much land because 30 households surveyed belong to Nguyen Giao. This street is located on National Highway 1A and provincial road 295 from Tu Son to Noi Bai. The agricultural land of the above 30 households are located along the provincial roads and in the area planned for industrial development. When the policy of Bac Ninh province came into reality, the whole land was revoked. Therefore, Dong Nguyen Ward lost more agricultural land than Dinh Bang. The number of surveyed households in Dinh Bang ward is scattered in Ha street, Ba La street, Thuong street. The agricultural land of the above households is located not only along the old National Highway 1A, along the Hanoi-Lang Son highway, but also in some other areas not included in the planning of industrial parks and urban areas. Therefore, some new urban areas, administrative area of Tu Son town was built in the area of Dinh Bang ward, the surveyed households were only recovered part of the land, but not all the area of land of family. According to the results, in addition to the variation in the area of agricultural land, rice-growing land before and after the withdrawal, there was also a small change in classification of agricultural land. This is the conversion of one household, from rice cultivation to planting flowers, plants and organic vegetables. - The price of land to be compensated and level of farmers’ satisfaction. The price of agricultural land is compensated in Tu Son according to the common land price bracket of the state. Depending on the time, farmers received different compensation rates. On average, farmers received the lowest land price of 17.2 million VND per sao in 2001. The highest price received by the farmers was 158 million VND/ sao (2015). Of the 60 households surveyed, 13 received compensation land price of 17 million VND / sao, 20 households received 19.5 million VND / sao, 11 households received 24.6 million VND / sao, 27 million VND / sao, 13 households receive 36 million VND / sao and 2 households received 158 million VND / sao. The price of land received by farmers varies depending on the time of land acquisition and the price of state land adjusted to increase over time. Of the 60 households surveyed, 37 (62.7%) were dissatisfied, 22 (37,3%) were satisfied with the price of state paid for their recalled land. The level of satisfaction with land prices is not the same in Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen wards. Those households receiving low compensation prices are in Dong Nguyen ward. The agricultural land of the these households was recovered in the early years of urbanization. 90% of the households in Dong Nguyen before the land acquisition was completely dependent on agricultural production. They disagreed with the price of land compensated by the state because they said the land price was too low compared to the market, and was not satisfactory while they nearly lost production material. This is the reason why 100% of households in Dong 157 Ngo Thi Hai Yen Nguyen ward are dissatisfied with the state’s compensated price of land. In Dinh Bang ward, 75,9% of the surveyed households were satisfied with the compensation price of the state. More than 50% of households reported that before their land was recovered, their livelihoods were not dependent on agricultural production. Approximately 20% of households rented their land to other households and transferred to other occupations before the land was recovered. So they easily accepted the price of land compensation of the state. - The issue on the use of compensated money by farmers. After analyzing 60 on-field questionnaires, the writer could answer the question: What did the farmers use the compensation money for? Of the total responses: 50% used the money to build houses, 35% used to buy household appliances, 35% used it for savings, 30% used to open a business store, 3% 3% used to build a hostel for workers, 6,7% used the money to learn new job skills, 18% used the money to send their children to school. Thus, with compensation money, the majority of farmers use to buy and build houses. Only 30% use the money to invest in business. Very few farmers used the compensation for new vocational training to change jobs. This is a fact taken place not only in Tu Son but also in other rural areas that are transforming into urban throughout Bac Ninh. Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen differ in terms of economic conditions, production practices and lifestyles, so people in these two areas have used compensation for different purposes. In Dong Nguyen Ward, many households used money to buy household appliances, build houses, open new business outlets and learn new job skills. While in Dinh Bang Ward, the number of households using the money to build a house, save and open a shop. In both wards, the number of households using the compensation for vocational training was very low (4.8 and 3.1%). 2.2. Impacts of agricultural land acquisition on some socio-economic issues The process of acquiring agricultural land for industrialization and urbanization has changed some socio-economic issues in the surveyed area. Analyzing 60 questionnaires, the author has seen basic changes in occupation, income and living environment of people in Dinh Bang ward, Dong Nguyen before and after the acquisition of agriculture land. - Career changes Prior to land acquisition, most of the households (58/60 households = 96.7% of the households) had worked mainly in agriculture and combined with another occupation (121 occupations / 60 households). After land reclamation, the number of occupations has decreased (111 occupations/ 60 households), of which the agricultural occupancy has declined the most, with only 24 out of 60 households. In Dong Nguyen before the land acquisition, 100% of households surveyed worked in agriculture, now only 20% (6 households). However, in the area of developing urban areas, the acquisition of agricultural land used to build new urban areas and for industrial parks ... has made the technical infrastructure of agriculture vulnerable, especially to the degradation and destruction of irrigation canals. As a result, agricultural livelihoods are not only reduced in the number of households, but also in terms of production efficiency. The number of households who want to stick to agriculture will also decrease, if they do not change the rotation of plants and animals. 158 Impacts of agricultural land recalls on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and... The number of households moving into business increased significantly (from 22 to 34 households). The number of business households, small traders increased more in Dong Nguyen. The number of service households increased more in Dinh Bang ward (from 1 to 10 households). The number of traditional craft households decreased. The number of people recruited to work in industrial zones only accounted for small numbers in Dong Nguyen (4/30 households). - Changes in income Land acquisition in Dinh Bang and Dong Nguyen took place over many years, so 60 surveyed households received compensation at different rates. Moreover, due to the impact of price inflation, it is difficult for the author to compare incomes between households at different times. The income change assessments that the author drew from the questionnaire were based on the respondent’s subjective assessment, so the evaluations were significant. However, the establishment of scatter / dot charts also allows the author to make some judgments. Chart 3. Household monthly income before land acquisition by ward Chart 4. Monthly incomeper capita after land acquisition by ward Source: Analyzed from the author’s survey data Chart 3 shows clearly that before the land acquisition, the majority of households surveyed in Dong Nguyen ward had a monthly average income of 3 million VND or less. Meanwhile, the average monthly income of households in Dinh Bang ward is mostly over 5 million VND. After land acquisition, the average monthly income of a household in Dong Nguyen ward has increased, from 5-10 million VND. Similarly, in Dinh Bang ward, the average monthly income of a household is 10-20 million VND. Chart 4 shows more clearly the distribution of average income before and after land acquisition. The average monthly income of the 60 households surveyed in Tu Son has increased from 4.4 million VND (before land acquisition) to 9.5 million VND (after land acquisition). Of which, the average monthly income from agriculture decreased from 1.4 million VND to 0.6 million VND, while the average income came from the other occupations such as industry, handicrafts, trade and employment. The highest increase in income came from restaurant and business services. It can be seen that these are two different cases of impacts of urban land recalls on the different livelihoods of people in 159 Ngo Thi Hai Yen the two urbanization areas. Chart 5. Structure of income by occupation before land acquisition Source: author’s survey data Prior to land acquisition, neither Dinh Bang nor Dong Nguyen had any income from the industry. In Dong Nguyen, there is no income from the service sector. Chart 6. Structure of income by occupation after land acquisition Source: author’s survey data Chart 5 and Chart 6 show the changes in the sources of income of the surveyed households. After analyzing data, the author has found that the livelihoods of households surveyed in Dong Nguyen have not been firmly established, as agricultural incomes are almost no longer available. Other sources of income in Dong Nguyen have increased, but the source from employment accounts for nearly 40% of the total income of the surveyed households. In Dinh Bang, livelihoods have improved remarkedly, with a large increase in the proportion of income from business activities and services (accounting for 70,6% of the total income of the surveyed households). - Changes caused by urban land use in the landscape, living environment and social problems in urbanized rural areas. Change in housing: According to the above results, more than 50% of respondents have used land compensation to build houses. Therefore, the changes in housing of the 160 Impacts of agricultural land recalls on some socio-economic issues in Dinh Bang ward and... people is more variable indicators than other indicators. Prior to land acquisition, at study sites, grade 4 and one-storey concrete buildings accounted for 61,6%, two-storey houses accounted for 31,7%, temporary housing 6,7% and no three-storey houses. After the land acquisition, grade 1 and one-storey concrete houses were reduced to 33,3%, instead two-storey house accounting for 56,7%, houses with three or more floors occupied 8,3% and temporary houses dropped to only 1,7%. Changes in the quality of life and living environment: The quality of life and employment opportunities of people have changed after the land reclamation and occupational change. Of the 60 households surveyed, 45 (75%) said that the quality of life was significantly improved, 33 (55%) said they would be more like
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