Unit 1 - Human’s abilities

At the end of this unit, students will be able to: • Use vocabulary relating to the topic (senses, special abilities, characteristics ) • Pronounce the vowel / ə / sound and word stress. • Develop listening, reading and speaking skills via practical exercises relating to this topic.

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1Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 UNIT OBJECTIVES HUMAN’S ABILITIES At the end of this unit, students will be able to: • Use vocabulary relating to the topic (senses, special abilities, characteristics … ) • Pronounce the vowel / ə / sound and word stress. • Develop listening, reading and speaking skills via practical exercises relating to this topic. OVERVIEW DURATION ( 12 PERIODS) WARMING UP • What can you do? • Proverbs relating to the topic GRAMMAR • Modal verbs • Kinds of modal verbs • Must and have to • Could and would • Should, ought to, had better, need VOCABULARY Vocabulary about human’s ablilities PRONUNCIATION Stress and the / ə / sound LISTENING • Adventurers • Someone you admire READING Special talents: Breaking record, Albert Einstein: the world’s most famous scientist SPEAKING Talk about someone you admire KEY WRITING Write about your strength and your weakness 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 A. Check on the picture that show what you could do when you were 5 years old. B. Following are some proverbs about human abilities. Could you add some more proverbs in the list? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Play chess Write Play the piano Read Swim Sing EXAMPLE 1. Adversity produces human abilities, not necessarily wealth. 2. Life is finite, while knowledge is infinite. 3. ........................................................................................................................... Modals are small verbs like can, must, and might, which give certain meanings to main verbs. There are twelve modal verbs: Can, could, shall, should, must, ought to, may, might, will, would, need (to), dare. A. General introduction about modal verbs Form + S + modal + main verb Positive sentence: Example: We should stay – S + modal + not + main verb Negative sentence Example: We shouldn’t stay. ? Modal + S + main verb? Question Example: Should we stay? 3Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 Can, could, be able to CAN COULD (The past of CAN) B. Common modal verbs in English FORM USE (+) S + can + V. We use Can to: • Talk about ability / possibility Example: They can control their own budgets. • Talk about inability / impossibility Example: She can’t speak three languages. • Ask for permission in a polite way Example: Can I smoke here? • Make request / ask for help Example: Can you help me? (–) S + can + not + V. can’t (?) Can + S + V? Yes, S + can. No, S + can’t. FORM USE (+) S + could + V. We use Could to: • Talk about past ability / past possibility Example: She could walk when she was nine months old. • To ask for permission in the present and future. Example: Could I borrow your phone for a second? • To make a polite request Example: Could you carry these boxes for me, please? (–) S + could + not + V. Couldn’t (?) Could + S + V? Yes, S + could. No, S + couldn’t. Notes: Be able to is sometimes used instead of can. 1. Can indicates future when used with a time word. 2. Be able to is used in all tenses (have been able to, had been able to, etc) Example: We can’t deliver your computer this afternoon, but we can deliver it tomorrow. We use can in a negative question when we want to show that we are surprised or upset by something. Example: Can’t you do anything without my help? 1 4Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 BE ABLE TO PRACTICE Complete the sentences with Can and the words in parentheses 1. We ................. the beach from our hotel. (not see) 2. ....................... your computer for a few minutes, please? (I/ use) 3. They............... to dinner tomorrow. (not come) 4. ....................... quiet for a second? (you/not be) 5. You................. tennis in this heavy rain. (not play) 6. ........................ the salt, please? (you/ pass) 7. She.................. very quickly. (type) 8. I....................... your writing. (not read) 9. ........................ me the money for a new match? (you/ not lend) 10. You................. well enough to be on the team. (swim) FORM USE (+) S+ am/ is/ are + able to + V. We can use be able to in a number of tenses, but never in continuous tenses. We use be able to talk about: • Ability Example: She is able to solve most computer problems. • Specific occasion when we managed (or didn’t manage) to do something. Example: I was able to find a good parking spot this morning. (–) S + am/ is/ are + not + able to + V. (?) Am/ Is/ Are + S + able to + V? Yes, S+ am/ is/ are No, S + am/ is/ are Notes: To talk about past ability on a specific occasion, we use was/ were able to. Could is not used for specific situations. In contrast, couldn’t can be used in both general and specific situations. Example: Matt was able to repair my computer yesterday. I tried but I couldn’t. Notes: With verbs of sense, we use could and not be able to. Example: He could hear the wind whistling through the trees. 1 5Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 Write questions. 1. Have a look at that letter (could) ................................................................................................................. 2. Leave work early this afternoon (could) ................................................................................................................. 3. Water my plants for me (can) ................................................................................................................. 4. Turn the music down (could) ................................................................................................................. 5. Give me a lift to the station (could) ................................................................................................................. 6. Stand under your umbrella (can) ................................................................................................................. Complete the sentences with the correct form of Be able to and the words in parentheses. 1. Now that you......................, you can take me to work. (not understand) 2. ..................... tennis with us tomorrow? (you/ play) 3. He................ fast for a few years now. (not run) 4. He................ Spanish until he lived in Panama for two years. (not speak) 5. ..................... your boat last weekend? (you/ sail) 6. We................ the ski resort because all the roads were blocked by snow. (not leave) 7. They............. to the airport with us next Wednesday. (not come). 8. He................. a lot more since he retired. (travel) MUST/ MUSTN’T 2 3 FORM USE (+) S+ must + V We use must to talk about: • Obligation Example: You must give your name to the guard before you go in. • Necessity Example: We must check the weather forecast before we go sailing. • We use must not to talk about prohibition Example: You must not talk about your job to anyone. (–) S + must + not + V mustn’t (?) Must + S + V? Yes, S + must No, S + mustn’t Notes: We do not usually use must in the question form. The form mustn’t is rare in American English. 2 6Unit 1: Human’s abilities MUST/MUSN’T/ HAVE TO/DON’T HAVE TO PRACTICE Complete the sentences with Could, couldn’t or must 1. We.............. leave the building because there is a fire on the sixth floor. 2. I ................. swim very well when I was young so I never liked going to the beach. 3. You............. share this information with anyone. 4. ................... you open the window, please? 5. We.................. watch television last night. 6. They............... wait until the guard gives them permission to enter. 7. ....................... stay a little longer, please? 8. She.............. remember my name? Complete the sentences with the correct form of have to. Use the verbs in the box. 1. ............. we............... these old magazines? 2. You................ at home for a few days until you feel better. 3. I................... early tomorrow because I’m on vacation. 4. We................... my cousin yesterday. 5. They..................... the old photocopier tomorrow because the new one is broken. 6. She............ lunch yesterday because her husband took her out to eat. Complete the sentences with the correct form of must, must not, have to or don’t have to and the verbs in parentheses. 1. You................ outside. You can come in if you want. (wait) 2. He............ the report today. It’s her decision. (finish) 3. You................... sunglasses in this strong sunlight! (wear) 4. She.............. the exam this year. She can wait until next year. (take) 5. You................ so many cakes because it’s not healthy. (eat) ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 MUST HAVE TO Must usually expresses personal obliga- tion. We use must when we express how we feel. Example: I must go to the dentist’s soon. We use have to to talk about external obligation and not our personal feelings. Example: I have to work late tonight (Because my boss has told me to) MUST NOT DON’T HAVE TO We use must not to talk about things that we are not allowed to do. Example: You must not drive a motorcycle without a helmet (It’s not allowed). Don’t have to means you can choose whether you do something or not. Example: You don’t have to come with us. (You can decide) 1 2 3 go help keep make not get up stay use 7Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 6. I...................... these bills by next Monday. (pay) 7. He................... frequently because he’s a sales representative. (travel) 8. You.................. to the post office. I bought stamps yesterday. (go). 9. We................... our house before winter arrives. (paint) 10. You................ special boots when you go into the factory. (wear) Rewrite the sentences using the words given. Use between two and five words. Example: Is it necessary for you to take your driving test so soon? (have) → Do you have to take your driving test so soon? 1. It’s against the rules to work alone in the factory. (work) → You............................................... alone in the factory. 2. I couldn’t contact him at all yesterday. (able) → I................................................... him at all yesterday. 3. It’s not necessary for us to stay in an expensive hotel. (have) → We............................................... in an expensive hotel. 4. It will not be possible for me to see you tomorrow. (be) → I.................................................. see you tomorrow. 5. Was it necessary for him to drive all that way last night? (he) → .................................................... drive all that way last night? Should/Ought To, May/Might/Need To SHOULD OUGHT TO • Ought to has the same meaning as Should. We use it to give advice Example: You ought to join a gym if you want to lose weight. • We do not use ought to in the question form. The negative form ought not to is rare in American English. 4 3 FORM USE (+) S + should + V We use should to: • Give advice Example: You should go to bed earlier. • Ask for advice Example: Should I ask my boss for more money? (–) S + should + not + V shouldn’t (?) Should + S + V? Yes, S + should No, S + shouldn’t Notes: In reported speech, should is used instead of shall Example: I ask if I should open the door 8Unit 1: Human’s abilities MAY/MIGHT We use may and might to say that something is a possibility in the present or future. Example: He may have the flu. Listen to that cough! We might see you later. NEED PRACTICE Find the mistakes in each sentence and rewrite the sentences correctly Example: He should to visit the doctor regularly → He should visit the doctor regularly 1. That mustn’t be George. He’s in China. →............................................................................................................... 2. We must eat out tonight, but we aren’t sure. →............................................................................................................... 3. That should be Lisa’s twin sister. She looks exactly like her. →............................................................................................................... 4. Ought to take a present when I visit them? →............................................................................................................... 5. He shouldn’t be at home. His car isn’t there. →............................................................................................................... 6. You might not eat so much food late last night. →............................................................................................................... Complete the sentences with Should or Shouldn’t. Use the verbs from the box. Example: He should follow his doctor’s advice. 1. You................................. do much money on computer games. 2. He................................... more if he wants to make the team. 3. We................................... where to go on vacation before it’s too late. ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 FORM USE (+) S + need + V We use need to: Show that something is necessary be done. Example: You need to close the door before going out. (–) S + need + not + V needn’t (?) Need + S + V? Yes, S + need No, S + needn’t 1 2 buy call decide follow get practice read spend throw wear drink 9Unit 1: Human’s abilities ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 4. You................................ plenty of water when it’s hot. 5. .................. I.................. the dentist now or wait until tomorrow? 6. She................................. more sleep. 7. You................................. a new toothbrush every month. 8. ..................we................. .these old magazines away? 9. You................................ other people’s letters. 10. I don’t think you......................... jeans to the wedding. Check () the correct sentence Example: a. () You must see a doctor more often. b. You must to see a doctor more often. 1. a. ......... They could fix the car by five o’clock yesterday. b. ......... They were able to fix the car by five o’clock yesterday. 2. a. ......... I don’t have to take his advice, but I will. b. ......... I must not take his advice, but I will. 3. a. ......... Could you to understand the lecture yesterday? b. ......... Were you able to understand the lecture yesterday? 4. a. ......... You hadn’t to do the housework for me. b. ......... You didn’t have to do the housework for me. 5. a. ......... They weren’t able to save enough money to go on vacation. b. ......... They weren’t been able to save enough money to go on vacation. 6. a. ......... Must you not see that I’m busy? b. ......... Can’t you see that I’m busy? 7. a. ......... I haven’t been able to run that fast since I was a child. b. ......... I couldn’t be able to run that fast since I was a child. 8. a. ......... You must remember to take your medicine at the right time. b. ......... You have to be able to remember to take your medicine at the right time. The five senses a. People have five physical senses – sight, audibility, taste, touch and smell. Which of those senses do each of these verbs or adjectives go with? Example: aromatic smell 3 A. Senses 1 aromatic bitter deafen glimpse peer pungent quiet spicy stink grasp tap 10 Unit 1: Human’s abilities b. Use all the words in the boxes to make ten true statements. Example: Alice has won a holiday in Bali. She feels very excited. The sixth sense Match the phenomena on the left with an example of it on the right. How multi-skilled are you? How easy can you do these things? Rate your abilities using the numbers below. Add up the numbers, and then look for interpretation of your score. Do you agree with the results? ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 1. Alice has won a holiday in Bali. She 2. Anna is going on a diet. She’s slim but she says she 3. Do you think he’s going to be sick? He 4. Have you heard about their trip to Nepal? It 5. Here comes the bride! She 6. I haven’t met Jill’s new teacher yet but she 7. I love stroking the car. It 8. I love this rose. It 9. No one has lived in this house for ages. It 10. They’ve put too much chocolate in this cake. It 11. This soup needs more salt and pepper. It feels looks smells sounds tastes very pleasant. too sweet. so soft. very exciting. fat. a bit tasteless. so fragrant. wonderful. rather green. musty. very excited. 2 1 1. Déjà vu 2. Intuition 3. Premonition 4. Sixth sense 5. Telepathy a. Experiencing any of the phenomena in this exercise b. Dreaming about an accident before it occurs c. Thinking about a friend a second before she rings you d. Walking into a place and feeling you’ve been there before e. Sensing why a close friend is upset B. Human’s abilities 4 = impossible 3 = very difficult 2 = difficult 1 = fairly easy 0 = no problem How multi-skilled are you? Can you …?  Speak a foreign language  Stop a watch from beeping on the hour  Surf the Internet  Program a car radio to a new station  Send e-mail messages  Type on a keyboard using all your fingers  Drive a car  Thread a needle and sew on a button  Cook a meal for four people  Program a VCR  Fix a flat tire on a bike  Put up some shelves  Replace a camera battery  Heat up milk in a microwave oven  Operate a washing machine  Fix a leaky faucet 11 Unit 1: Human’s abilities The interpretation of your quiz score is: Special abilities Character adjectives The adjectives in the box below are all in the crossword. Read the clues and complete the crossword with them. ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 Score Interpretation 0 – 13 You’re so multi-skilled, it’s unbelievable! Is there anything you can’t do? 14 – 26 You can do many things. Be careful that other people don’t take advantage of you and get you to do everything for them. 27 – 39 You’re a talented person who can do most of the things you need to do. 40 – 52 Although you’re good at doing some things, maybe you could learn to do some more things that you find difficult. 45 – 64 It’s important that you learn to do some things yourself. Until then, don’t live alone. 2 1 Talk to animal Climb to Everest Speak many languages Travel around the world by bike Travel to the moon Walk to the North Pole Row across the Atlantic Predict the future Create androids Read minds a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) C. Characteristics adventurous ambitious eccentric immature moody nosy obstinate self-confident strict sympathetic talented timid violent 12 Unit 1: Human’s abilities Positive characteristics a. Work in pairs. Check these words in your dictionary if necessary. ENG103_Bai 1_v1.0010112202 2 Across 1. They shouldn’t get married at eighteen. They are far too .................... to take such an important decision. 5. Clive is having another exhibition of his paintings. He’s also giving a concert next week. He is a very .................... person. 7. Tina is so ..................... If I have a problem, she always listens and tries to help me. 8. At the office party, she stood in a corner and didn’t speak to anyone. She’s very quiet and ..................... 9. We’re given her lots of good advice but she won’t listen. She’s very ..................... 11. Jackie is so ..................... One minute she’s laughing and the next she’s sulking. 12. He’s a ................. man. He was arguing with Tom last night and he ended up push ing him against the wall and shaking him. Down 2. My uncle cycles around town in a big red hat and long red boots. Everyone st
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