Vietnam trade from the late 10th century to the late 14th century

Abstract. Vietnam’s trade from the late 14th century to the 10th Century After having independence in 938, especially the steps to the Ly-Tran (XIXIV centuries), Vietnam conditioned buildings and national development in all aspects, we have to mention the profound changes of trade. Which conditions for the development of trade in this period based on? How was Operating in Foreign Domestic trade and commerce? This article will clarify the issues.

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JOURNAL OF SCIENCE OF HNUE 2011, Vol. 56, N◦. 1, pp. 50-55 VIETNAM TRADE FROM THE LATE 10th CENTURY TO THE LATE 14th CENTURY Nguyen Thi My Hanh Hanoi National University of Education E-mail: Abstract. Vietnam’s trade from the late 14th century to the 10th Century After having independence in 938, especially the steps to the Ly-Tran (XI- XIV centuries), Vietnam conditioned buildings and national development in all aspects, we have to mention the profound changes of trade. Which conditions for the development of trade in this period based on? How was Operating in Foreign Domestic trade and commerce? This article will clarify the issues. Keywords: Ly-Tran (XI-XIV centuries), Vietnam trade, Foreign trade, Do- mestic trade, commerce. 1. Introduction After gaining national independence in 938, especially in the steps to the Ly- Tran (XI-XIV centuries), our country conditions in building national development in all aspects, which mention the profound changes in Economic trade. So which conditions in the development of trade in this is period based upon? What were operations in domestic commerce and foreign trade contemporary transformation steps like? This article will go further to clarify the above issues. 2. Content 2.1. Conditions for goods exchange Based on the industry it was fairly well developed, the feudal dynasties of our country from the second half of the 10th century to the late 14th century had a relatively positive action in promoting trade activities in our country and foreign countries. In this period, working to create a transportation system for the country was the leading concern in promoting the commercial activities of the feudal state. Under the reign of Le Hoan, he completed training from the mountain rivers connecting the Dong Co Mountain (Yen Dinh, Thanh Hoa) to Ba Hoa River (Tinh Gia, Thanh Hoa). In 1003, Le Hoan allowed dredging of the channel Da Cai connecting Hung Yen, Nghe An to Am Chau. 50 Vietnam trade from the late 10th century to the late 14th century By 1244, Tran Thai Tong provided agencies to form waterways with the aim to extend the road from the river and on to the Thang Long Highway, mainly in the northern delta and Thanh - Nghe. Under the Tran Dynasty, road and water- ways were no longer dealt with by the local people and spontaneous construction that became the work of local authorities, the court directed the organization and construction. There were footpaths and roads in every district and every village. On rivers and many canals were repaired and many boats were used to travel and transport goods. Tran Phu, a messenger of the Nguyen Dynasty came to our coun- try in 1293, and wrote that: ”the boat is lightweight and long, plank (boats) are thin, tail (boats) like wing intellectual levels, the two sided (boat) it really high up. (Each unit) had up to thirty people rowing, there were many hundreds of people, such as flying boats [1;122]. In addition, the sea route also contributed to promoting trade at the time. The crew of the Diep ieu (Gia Va), Thien (Mianma), Thien Truc (India) had landed in the port of ai Viet during this period. Meanwhile, means of circulation of goods as money began to be widely used. This Dynasty began to mint its own currency ”Thai Binh Hung Bao”. This was the first copper coinage in Vietnam. Since then, the feudal dynasties of the coins cast his own reign as the ”Thien Phuc Tran Bao” Tien Le time, the ”Thuan Thien Dai Bao” Ly Thai To time, the ”Nguyen Phong Thong Bao” Tran Thai Tong time or the time of the Ho dynasty is the currency of paper ”Thong Bao Hoi Sao”... In addition, the market also used a lot of money in China. Monetary relations are now gradually entering economic life, politics and culture. The Ly, Tran expanded their land purchases in cash and pay for their officials. Under the Tran dynasty, the Swear Festival was held every year on April 4 at Dong Co temple in accordance with traditional rites from the Ly. On this day, ”The Chancellor and hundreds of officials were waiting at the door from the time the cockerals to crow, then they stepped into court at twilight. At Dong Co Temple Mount, they met together and drank blood to swear ”to do my best medium, as the clean, who left this oath or kill myself.” Those who missed this big meeting were to be paid 5 money” [2;11]. Even the government also collected taxes in cash. It all shows the Currency payment feature in this period had grown quite large, deeply penetrating all aspects of social life. Also for the first time, under the Tran, the state agreed measurement units in the country, creating favorable conditions for exchanges and trading at that time. 2.2. Domestic trade Most typical for the development of domestic trade is the existence of a market network in the Red River Delta. Market networks were present in the villages and streets. In Thang Long, a much crowded market known as Hang Hoa (Ngoc Ha Street), White Horse Fair (known as Hang Buom today) were located along To Lich 51 Nguyen Thi My Hanh River. In the other villages also appeared session meetings markets, this was a market-fair meeting with other differences. In this regard the messenger Tran Phu wrote: ”These villages often have markets, occuring every two days, with hundreds of goods listed. Every five miles of built houses, four sides of the place have tents made up as marketplaces” [3;120]. Conventional markets in the villages are formed in places that have convenient traffic and high population density such as the river landing, wharf, the traffic intersections. Besides the markets we also have to mention the appearance of the city. The centre of the largest river and the transportation hub are both major cities. Typical streets are like Luy Lau (Thuan Thanh, Bac Ninh) next to the Dau River is a fixed marketplace, or by the Nghia Tru River (Xuan Cau, Van Giang, Hung Yen province) with Lo town was formed in this period. It can be said, the combination of markets and this city has established an exchange market, trading of local authorities in the country to satisfy the needs of all social classes. Although there is not any documentation about the structure of markets, street trading and specific commodities there is certainly circulation of mainly agricultural goods, forestry, soil, fisheries and the local industry crafts. We also have to mention the trade centres, where the exchanges and trading are pretty crowded, for example: Hoa Lu, Long Bien, Tong Binh under Ngo-Dinh- Tien Le time Dinh and Thang Long under Ly-Tran time. Under Tran, Thang Long with 61 wards [2;10] is actually a crowded marketplace, busy all night. People dealing here mainly in the wards of Thang Long. They are craftsmen merchants, professional traders or many people who are farmers who buy and sell products. However the capital of Thang Long at that time the ”capital” was a prominent ”market”, in other words, Thang Long is not well defined as an economic centre of the country. 2.3. Foreign trade Although the agricultural economy plays a key role throughout the history of the monarchy in our country, but it did not restrict foreign trade. Actual history shows that foreign trade is still going through the steps of development. Goods made in foreign countries with pure trade routesbut also by way of political &diplomatic forms oftribute to the feet of the Embassies, diplomats abroad. It is also similar with Vietnam & other countries in Northeast Asia and Southest Asia. Under feudalism, among the countries having trade relations with our country, China is engaged in trade closely and regularly. Chinese merchants and traders to Vietnam and Vietnam traders to China to trade. In this period, for fear of China being under the guise of spying on the situ- ation in the country, the kings ai Viet only allowed the Chinese to trade in certain points and take control of the state. In contrast, China was the same only allowing Vietnamese traders to trade at some points in Ung Chau, Kham Chau. In 1009, 52 Vietnam trade from the late 10th century to the late 14th century Le Long Dinh placed the relationship in trade with Ung Chau. 1012, Ly Cong Uan allowed the crew to bring their products to Ung Chau to trade, but King Tong Chan Tong only approved for the boats stopping at Chau and the camp Nhu Hong belonged to Kham Chau as the old regulations of Tien Le times. In trade locations between ai Viet and China, we must first mention the ”Bac Dich Truong” at the border of two countries. In Ung Chau there were two major Bac DichTruongs. The first was Hoanh Son, where they could purchase products, pharmaceuticals and local salt. The second, was Vinh Binh, one of the most im- portant positions in commodity trading with ai Viet in this period. Chu Khu Phi in External domains of response, any object left Tri series, said: ”Vinh Binh farm in Huu Giang river, Ung Chau, adjacent to the border of Giao Chi, only separated by a small river. North was Giao Chi station, south Tuyen Hoa home, as a Bac Dich Truong. Vinh Binh Farmers considered the exchange and Giao Chi people bring everything: incense, ivory, horn cells, gold, money in exchange for cloth. Giao Chi people went to Vinh Binh by road. The goods they sold were precious except for heavy salt, but salt could be exchanged for cloth. 25 salt bags equals a crate produced in the district Vu Duyen, Ung Chau” [4;225]. The largest Bac Dich Truong is in Kham Chau. According to Chu Khu Phi, ”Bac Dich Truong in suburban in Giang ong station. Giao Chi brought fish, oysters to exchange for rice, cloth size. The biggest trader (in Great Vietnamese - TG) from Vinh An must have been Kham Chau, as small businessman, while the mission was sent to Kham Chau to traders called big buisnessman. Goods sold were silver copper, money, incense, incense-ray, home schools, home life, pearls ivory. The small businesses of our country:(China) sold rice, paper, fabrics pens every day small exchanges with Giao Chi people, not significant. Only the rich merchant trade silk from Kham Chau to Thuc and trade incense from Thuc to Kham Chau. One trip a year took place resulting in selling thousands of official money. Now the two sides bring goods to bargain together. In the past bargaining negotiations was not with others. The initial price was actually separate. ”The rich merchants of our country (China) sent a small merchant to self-build houses, plowing the fields in order to stay for a long time. The merchants of ai Viet also stubbornly would not to budge, holding high rates make us miserable and keep us poor. When two traders met, they were invited to drink and have fun, long before it came to trading time. The following merchants gradually raised rates, roughly equal to each other then.” [4;225]. According to Chu Khu Phi, the incense from ai Viet which was trafficked to China was Champa incense. Perhaps the traders of ai Viet traded the incense of Champa and sold to China. Among ethnic minorities in border areas also had an exchange, trading with each other. Great Vietnamese History and Complete copied that: in 1012, the Man (in the south of Ta Giang and Huu Giang of China) through the copper column to Kim Hoa wharf - Vi Long area for trade. King (Ly Thai To) asked someone to catch 53 Nguyen Thi My Hanh the Man and more than a thousand horses [2;62]. However, the fact is, the trade at the border of two countries in Ung Chau and Kham Chau was bustling during Ly dynasty, it became faint and no notes were recorded in the old history in the Tran dynasty. Regarding Maritime Trade, many seaports such as Hoi Thong, Can Hai, Cua Con (belonging to Nghe Tinh), Hoi Trieu, Lach Bang (Thanh Hoa), and especially Van Don were the centre of trade with other foreign countries and were the points of sea convergence sea under Ly-Tran time. At these places they received merchant ships from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand etc., to trade. Van Don which was considered the most important commercial port at that time. The book Great Vietnamese History and Complete copied that: ”the spring of February in 1149, overflow merchant ships of Trao Oa, Lo Lac, Xiem La and Hai Dong required to reside and trade, then to make our country a farm in islands, known as Van Don, for your buying and selling goods, offering money, local products, in 1184, the traders of Xiem La and Tam Phat Te in Van Don town gave treasures and offer of trade” [2;317]. Beyond the significance of the national economic development strategy, setting up Van Don farms has marked the accession of Dai Viet in international and regional marine trade systems through the South Sea. By the time of Tran, Van Don farm was changed into Van Don town. Later because the sea was shifted, shallow estuaries were filled, so the only foreign merchant ships gathered in Van Don. So, this port became the most important foreign trade centre. Is an archipelago located in the northeast of the country, Van Don is a crucial place in the maritime shipping route from China to ai Viet. During the period of invasion in our country, military and marine transport fleets of Chinese wages were going through it. Therefore, the defence of Van Don and the tight control of foreign trade in Van Don were of particular interest in the Ly, Tran dynasty. In 1349, Tran dynasty had put the Town officials and sea supervisors in Van Don. It also had an occupying army strictly known as the Binh Hai Navy. The smugglers were heavily punished. At this time, the role of Van Don trading port and Northeast regions in the international and regional trade systems and sector in the East Sea were known through intermediary functions and exported ceramics. Besides the function of intermediate Chinese ceramics market areas, Van Don is known as the gateway to Great Vietnamese ceramics (the Tran-brown glaze) to the international market. It can be said, over four centuries, trading activities between Vietnam and foreign countries were on a bustle. In particular, China is a country with frequent trading relations, and most importantly constant. Some countries, though trading activities were apparent but dominant goods were not. Items may arrive in ai Viet in the form of tribute, such as Champa, Chan Lap etc., Some countries, like Giava, Xiem La, were for the purpose of trafficking to the crowds. The development of foreign trade during this period, especially under the Ly- 54 Vietnam trade from the late 10th century to the late 14th century Tran is the general trend in the context of region and international routes in XI-XIV centuries. In the XI-XIV centuries, by connecting short maritime trade routes (such as linking Mediterranean traders with the traders of Arab-Persian, Arab-Persian traders with Indian traders, Indian traders with Southeast Asian traders, traders in Southeast Asia with Chinese traders ...), a commercial structure connecting Asia and Europe were formed, Southeast Asia was under the uniform world trade network [5;222-223]. Although ai Viet is not an extrovert country, it has a large source of export products [6;39]. Its geographical location is particularly convenient in the ”crossroads”, ai Viet as well as other countries in the region are eligible and able to participate actively in prosperous and bustling international trade systems. 3. Conclusion Overall, from the late 10th century to the late 14th century, the ai Viet Trade has made significant progress. Although there are levels of development within the framework of economic self-sufficiency, within the constraints of the feudal system of land rent, but it really contributed to build a strong country in all aspects and factors, beautifying the brilliant civilization of contemporary of the ai Viet civiliza- tion. REFERENCES [1] According to a translation of Tran Nghia, 1972. A picture ”sketch” of society in Tran times, the poems of An Nam of Tran Phu. Journal of Literature, No. 1. [2] Ngo Si Lien and the historians of Le Dynasty, 1993. Great Vietnamese history and Complete. Social Sciences Publishing House, Hanoi, episode II. [3] Tran Phu. The An Nam, according to a translation of Tran Nghia, Literary Magazine. [4] Quoted by Tran Quoc Vuong, Ha Van Tan, 1963. A History of the feudal regime in Vietnam. episode l. Education Publishing House, Hanoi. [5] Kenneth R. Hall.Maritime Trade and State Development in Early Southest Asia. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. [6] Sakurai Yumio, 1996. Try drawing up structural history of Southeast Asia (through the link between marine and continental). Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, No 4. ABSTRACT Vietnam trade from the late 10th century to the late 14th century After having independence in 938, especially the steps to the Ly-Tran (XI-XIV centuries), Vietnam conditioned buildings and national development in all aspects, we have to mention the profound changes of trade. Which conditions for the devel- opment of trade in this period based on? How was Operating in Foreign Domestic trade and commerce? This article will clarify the issues. 55