Bài giảng Biology 25: Human Biology - Chapter 9: Human Respiratory System

Human Respiratory System Functions: Works closely with circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood: Takes up oxygen from air and supplies it to blood (for cellular respiration). Removal and disposal of carbon dioxide from blood (waste product from cellular respiration). Homeostatic Role: Regulates blood pH. Regulates blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

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Chapter 9 Biology 25: Human BiologyProf. GonsalvesLos Angeles City CollegeLoosely Based on Mader’s Human Biology,7th editionHuman Respiratory SystemFunctions: Works closely with circulatory system, exchanging gases between air and blood:Takes up oxygen from air and supplies it to blood (for cellular respiration).Removal and disposal of carbon dioxide from blood (waste product from cellular respiration).Homeostatic Role:Regulates blood pH.Regulates blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.Blood Transports Gases Between Lungs and TissuesHuman Respiratory SystemComponents: Nasal cavity, throat (pharynx), larynx (voice box), trachea, bronchi, alveoli, and lungs.Pathway of Inhaled Air: Nasal cavityPharynx (Throat)Larynx (Voice Box)Trachea (Windpipe)BronchiBronchiolesAlveoli (Site of gas exchange)Exhaled air follows reverse pathway.Human Respiratory System1. Nasal cavity: Air enters nostrils, is filtered by hairs, warmed, humidified, and sampled for odors as it flows through a maze of spaces. 2. Pharynx (Throat): Intersection where pathway for air and food cross. Most of the time, the pathway for air is open, except when we swallow.3. Larynx (Voice Box): Reinforced with cartilage. Contains vocal cords, which allow us to make sounds by voluntarily tensing muscles.High pitched sounds: Vocal cords are tense, vibrate fast.Low pitched sounds: Vocal cords are relaxed, vibrate slowly.More prominent in males (Adam’s apple).Human Respiratory System4. Trachea (Windpipe): Rings of cartilage maintain shape of trachea, to prevent it from closing. Forks into two bronchi.5. Bronchi (Sing. Bronchus): Each bronchus leads into a lung and branches into smaller and smaller bronchioles, resembling an inverted tree. 6. Bronchioles: Fine tubes that allow passage of air. Muscle layer constricts bronchioles. Epithelium of bronchioles is covered with cilia and mucus.Mucus traps dust and other particles.Ciliary Escalator: Cilia beat upwards and remove trapped particles from lower respiratory airways. Rate about 1 to 3 cm per hour.Pulmonary Function TestsAssessed by spirometry.Subject breathes into a closed system in which air is trapped within a bell floating in H20.The bell moves up when the subject exhales and down when the subject inhales.SpirogramTidal volume: Amount of air expired with each breath.Vital capacity:The maximum amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after maximum inhalation.Table 16.3 Terms Used to Describe Lung Volumes and CapacitiesTerm DefinitionLung Volumes The four nonoverlapping components of the total lung capacity Tidal volume The volume of gas inspired or expired in an unforced respiratory cycle Inspiratory reserve volume The maximum volume of gas that can be inspired during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume Expiratory reserve volume The maximum volume of gas that can be expired during forced breathing in addition to tidal volume Residual volume The volume of gas remaining in the lungs after a maximum expirationLung Capacities Measurements that are the sum of two or more lung volumes Total lung capacity The total amount of gas in the lungs after a maximum inspiration Vital capacity The maximum amount of gas that can be expired after a maximum inspiration Inspiratory capacity The maximum amount of gas that can be inspired after a normal tidal expiration Functional residual capacity The amount of gas remaining in the lungs after a normal tidal expirationAnatomical Dead SpaceNot all of the inspired air reached the alveoli.As fresh air is inhaled it is mixed with anatomical dead space.Conducting zone and alveoli where 02 concentration is lower than normal and C02 concentration is higher than normal.Alveolar ventilation: f x (TV- DS)F = frequency (breaths/min.).TV = tidal volume.DS = dead space.Restrictive and Obstructive DisordersRestrictive disorder:Vital capacity is reduced. FVC is normal.Obstructive disorder:VC is normal.FEV1 is reduced.Breathing Ventilates the LungsBreathing: Alternation of inhalation and exhalation. Supplies our lungs with oxygen rich air, and expels excess carbon dioxide.Inhalation: Diaphragm contracts, moving downward and causing rib cage, chest cavity, and lungs to expand. Air rushes in, due to decrease in internal lung pressure as lungs expand.Exhalation: Diaphragm relaxes, moving upwards and causing rib cage, chest cavity, and lungs to contract. Air rushes out, due to the increase in internal lung pressure as lungs contract. Breathing is controlled by centers in the nervous system to keep up with body’s demands.Hemoglobin helps transport CO2 and buffer bloodHemoglobin is found in red blood cellsFunctions:Transports oxygenTransport carbon dioxideHelps buffer blood As carbon dioxide is picked up from tissues it is converted into carbonic acid: CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3 - Carbon Carbonic acid Carbonate ion dioxideHemoglobin picks up most H + ions, so they don’t acidify the blood.Hemoglobin Loading and Unloading of OxygenRespiratory Acid-Base BalanceVentilation normally adjusted to keep pace with metabolic rate.H2CO3 produced converted to CO2, and excreted by the lungs.H20 + C02 H2C03 H+ + HC03-Respiratory AcidosisHypoventilation.Accumulation of CO2 in the tissues.pH decreases.Plasma HCO3- increases.Pc02 increases.Respiratory AlkalosisHyperventilation.Excessive loss of CO2.pH increases.Plasma HCO3- decreases.Pc02 decreases. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemRespiratory rate: 10 to 14 inhalations/minute.In one day, an average human:Breathes 20,000 timesInhales 35 pounds of airMost of us breathe in air that is heavily contaminated with solid particles, ozone, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and many other damaging chemicals.Breathing contaminated air can cause a number of diseases including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemRespiratory rate: 10 to 14 inhalations/minute.In one day, an average human:Breathes 20,000 timesInhales 35 pounds of airMost of us breathe in air that is heavily contaminated with solid particles, ozone, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and many other damaging chemicals.Breathing contaminated air can cause a number of diseases including asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemCigarette smoke is one of the worse air pollutants.Over 1 million people start smoking every year.Kills about 350,000 people every year in U.S.Contains 4000 different chemicals.Each cigarette smoked subtracts about 5 minutes from life expectancy.Cigarette smoke paralyzes cilia in airways, preventing them from removing debris and from protecting delicate alveoli.Frequent coughing is the only way airways can clean themselves.Cigarette smoke also causes fetal damage, which can result in miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, and poor development. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemAsthma: Condition in which breathing is impaired by constriction of bronchi and bronchioles, cough, and thick mucus secretions. The severity and incidence of asthma has risen dramatically in recent years, especially in children. May be fatal if not treated. Causes: Attacks may be precipitated by inhalation of allergens (e.g.: pollen, cats, and cockroach proteins), pollutants, infection, or emotional stress. Treatment: Alleviates symptoms (e.g.: immuno-suppressors, bronchodilators), but is not a cure. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemBronchitis: Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi. May present with cough, fever, chest or back pain, and fatigue. Causes: Associated with smoking, pollution, and bacterial or viral infections.Pneumonia: Acute inflammation of the lungs. Symptoms include high fever, chills, headache, cough, and chest pain. Causes: Bacterial, fungal, or viral infections. Treatment: Antibiotics or other antimicrobials. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemEmphysema: Permanent and irreversible destruction of alveolar walls, resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange surface. Symptoms include shortness of breath, difficulty exhaling, cough, weakness, anxiety, confusion, heart failure, lung edema (swelling), and respiratory failure. Causes: Smoking, pollution, old age, and infections. Treatment: Oxygen to help breathing. No cure. Diseases of the Respiratory SystemLung Cancer: Cancerous growth that invades and destroys lung tissue. Very high fatality rate. Symptoms include bloody sputum, persistent cough, difficulty breathing, chest pain, and repeated attacks of bronchitis or pneumonia. Causes: Smoking (50% of all cases) and pollution (radon, asbestos). Smokers are 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonsmokers. Treatment: Surgery is most effective, but only 50% of all lung cancers are operable by time of detection. Other treatments include radiation and chemotherapy.Human Fetus Exchanges Gases with Mother’s Blood through the Placenta
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