Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 45: Laboratory Equipment and Safety

Objectives: 45-1 Describe the purpose of the physician’s office laboratory. 45-2 List the medical assistant’s duties in the physician’s office laboratory. 45-3 Identify important pieces of laboratory equipment. 45-4 Operate a microscope. 45-5 Identify the regulatory controls governing procedures completed in the physician’s office laboratory. 45-6 Identify measures to prevent accidents. 45-7 Describe correct waste disposal procedures.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 451Objectives:45-1 Describe the purpose of the physician’s office laboratory.45-2 List the medical assistant’s duties in the physician’s office laboratory.45-3 Identify important pieces of laboratory equipment.45-4 Operate a microscope.45-5 Identify the regulatory controls governing procedures completed in the physician’s office laboratory.45-6 Identify measures to prevent accidents.45-7 Describe correct waste disposal procedures.Laboratory Equipment and Safety 2Objectives (cont.)45-8 Describe the need for quality assurance and quality control programs.45-9 Maintain accurate documentation, including all logs related to quality control.45-10 List common reference materials to consult for information on procedures performed in the physician’s office laboratory.45-11 Communicate with patients regarding test preparation and follow-up.45-12 Identify the medical assistant’s record-keeping responsibilities.Laboratory Equipment and Safety3Introduction Laboratory testing is an integral component of patient care.You will learn safety in the laboratory mandated by OSHA and steps to aid in preventing accidents. You must understand quality assurance, quality control procedures and required record keeping.4Role of Laboratory Testing in Patient Care Regular monitor for normal resultsSpecific tests for diagnosisTo determine and monitor medicationsAnalysis of blood, urine, or other body fluids and substances provides three kinds of information5Kinds of Laboratories Reference LaboratoryOwned and operated by an organization outside the practiceHave technological resources beyond the (POL)Physician’s Office Laboratory (POL)Laboratory that is operated from the physician’s officeProcessing tests in the POL produces quicker turnaround No need for patient to travel to other test sites. Some managed care companies have contracts with laboratory companies requiring their subscriber to use a specific reference laboratory.6Medical Assistant’s Role Preparing the patient for the testCollecting the sampleCompleting the testsReporting the resultsTelling the results to the patientYou may be responsible forprocessing tests done in the POL:7Use of Laboratory Equipment Learn by on the job or formal training.You may routinely use the following:AutoclaveCentrifugeMicroscopeElectronic equipmentEquipment used for measurement8Parts of the MicroscopeEyepieces NosepieceObjectivesSlide Clips StageCondenserIrisLight SourceFine Adjustment Coarse AdjustmentBaseArm 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.10.11.12. 2. 3. 4. 1.Name the parts of this MICROSCOPE.Click the Page Down button to see answers.9Safety in the Laboratory You must always be aware of and observe guidelines for laboratory safety.OSHA guidelinesUniversal precautionsHazard communication standardsOSHA Bloodborne pathogens standardHazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Final Rule10Universal PrecautionsFollow these guidelines;Wear gloves when handling body fluids, secretions and excretionsChange gloves every time you move from patient to patientWash hands after removing gloves11Hazard Communication StandardBiohazard labelsMaterial Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)Hazard labels12OSHA Blood-borne Pathogens StandardsWritten OSHA Exposure Control Plan must be created and updated annuallyTraining must be provided to all employees as mandated by the standard that includes use of PPE.Employees must take hepatitis B vaccine or decline in writing.13Hazardous Waste Operation & Emergency Response Final RuleHazardous waste products include:Blood and blood productsBody fluids and tissueCultures VaccinesSharpsGlovesSpeculaInoculating loopsPaper product contaminated with body fluids14Accident Prevention GuidelinesPhysical safetyFire and electrical safetyChemical safetyBiologic safety 15Apply Your Knowledge How are each of the following pieces of equipment used in the POL?AutoclaveMicroscopeCentrifuge16Apply Your Knowledge –AnswerAutoclave – sterilize or eradicate all microorganismsMicroscope – examination of blood smears and identification of microorganismsCentrifuge – spinning a specimen to separate its component parts How are each of the following pieces of equipment used in the POL?17Responding to an Accident You should be able to deal with most emergenciesThere should be a written procedure to follow in the event of an accident.Ensure safety for you, your colleagues and patients.18Responding to an Accident (cont.)Administer first aidTake steps to get helpUse appropriate cleaning products for spilled chemicalsDo not touch broken glass, use tongs or broom and dustpan19HousekeepingDesigned to reduce the risk of disease transmission Guidelines for good operation procedures and reduce the risk of infections Written policies and proceduresImmediately clean up skills or splashes or contaminated materials20Quality Assurance ProgramsDesign to monitor the quality of the patient care a medical lab providesClinical laboratory improvement amendments (CLIA)Labs under Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and CDC regulations21Certificate of Waiver Tests Tests pose insignificant risk to the patient if they are performed or interpreted incorrectlyProcedures involved are simple and accurate to such a degree that risk of obtaining incorrect results is minimalTests have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use by patients at home.22Quality Assurance ProgramMust include :Quality controlInstrument and equipment maintenanceProficiency testingTraining and continuing educationStandard operating procedures documentation23Quality Control Calibration regularly of all equipmentControl samples serves as a check on the accuracy of the testReagent Control formulated to react in specific ways when exposed to special conditionsFocus is to ensure accuracy in test results by carefully monitoring test procedures.Must follow these procedures:24Quality MaintenanceTesting instruments and equipments must be properly maintained and procedures documented Documentation includes:Careful adherence to procedures to identify problemsCareful documentation of all procedures.25Proficiency TestingA passing mark indicates that your laboratory can continue to perform that particular testFailing mark means that your laboratory must stop the test and possibly other tests as well.Measures accuracy of test results and adherence to standard operating procedures26Training, Continuing Education & DocumentationMust provide training, written reference materials and procedures conducted in the POL.MSDSStandard operating proceduresSafety manualsEquipment manufacturers’ user or reference guidesClinical Lab Technical Procedure ManualsOSHA standardsMaintenance and housekeeping schedules27Communicating With the PatientBefore the patient submits samples for lab testsDuring the specimen collection proceduresAfter the interpreted lab results have been given to the patient28Record Keeping Keep Records on:Inventory controlPatient recordsSpecimen identificationAccurate and complete record keeping can be summed up: “If it is not written down, it was not done”29Apply Your KnowledgeCongress placed all laboratory facilities under what federal agencies?30Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerHealth Care Financing Administration (HCFA) and CDC regulationsCongress placed all laboratory facilities under what federal agencies?31Apply Your Knowledge #2When you arrive at work one morning you notice a fellow medical assistant putting on some lip balm in the POL . What should you do? 32Apply Your Knowledge #2 -AnswerLip balm should not be put on in the POL. You may want to remind your fellow employee that it is for her safety not to put on make-up in the laboratory.When you arrive at work one morning you notice a fellow medical assistant putting on some lip balm in the POL . What should you do?33Summary Medical Assistant The physician’s office lab offers many opportunities for interesting and satisfying work in your role as a medical assistant. Keeping a level head and applying common sense will go a long way toward making your work in the lab efficient and accurate.34End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 35
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