Bài giảng Medical Assisting - Chapter 49: Nutrition and Special Diets

Objectives: 49-1 Explain why a medical assistant needs to understand the role of diet in health. 49-2 Describe how the body uses food. 49-3 Explain the role of calories in the diet. 49-4 Identify the seven basic food components and explain the major functions of each. 49-5 List the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

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ChapterPowerPoint® to accompany Second EditionRamutkowski  Booth  Pugh  Thompson  WhickerCopyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.Medical Assisting Chapter 491Objectives:49-1 Explain why a medical assistant needs to understand the role of diet in health.49-2 Describe how the body uses food.49-3 Explain the role of calories in the diet.49-4 Identify the seven basic food components and explain the major functions of each.49-5 List the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.Nutrition and Special Diets 2Objectives (cont.)49-6 Explain how the Food Guide Pyramid can be used to plan a nutritious, well-balanced diet.49-7 Describe a test used to assess body fat.49-8 Identify types of patients who require special diets and the modifications required for each group.49-9 Identify specific modified diets that may be ordered to treat or prevent certain conditions.Nutrition and Special Diets3Objectives (cont.)49-10 Describe the warning signs, symptoms, and treatment of eating disorders. 49-11 Describe techniques the medical assistant can use to effectively educate different types of patients about nutritional requirements.Nutrition and Special Diets4Introduction Nutrition is a five part process: IntakeDigestionAbsorptionMetabolism Elimination You will gain the knowledge needed to recognize the signs of illness related to diet. Nutrition is the process of how the body takes in and utilizes food and other sources of nutrients.5Role of Diet in HealthYou need to know what effect food has on health.You will work closely with the rest of the medical team to ensure patients understand the role of diet and how they adhere to prescribed diets.6Daily Energy Requirements The human body requires the nutrients in food for three purposes. To provide energyTo build, repair, and maintain body tissuesTo regulate body processes You will need to understand the relationship of food to good health and how the body uses food.7Metabolism Sum of all the cellular processes that build, maintain, and supply energy to living tissue.Anabolism – substances such as nutrients are changed into more complex substances and used to build body tissue. Catabolism – complex substances are broken down into simpler substances and converted to energy.8Role of Calories The amount of energy a food produces in the body is measured in kilocalories.A calorie – amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 10 C.Foods differ in number of caloriesCalories – used to measure the energy the body uses during all activities and metabolic processes.9Seven Basic Food Components ProteinsCompleteIncomplete CarbohydratesSimple ComplexFiberLipidsVitaminsMineralsWater10Proteins: Essential nutrient for building and repairing cells and tissues.When ill: Helps maintain the body’s water balance.Assists with antibody production and disease resistance.Helps maintain body heat.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.)11Carbohydrates:Provide two-thirds of a person’s daily energy needs.Provides heatHelp metabolize fatsReserves protein for uses other than supplying energySeven Basic Food Components (cont.) Healthy Carbohydrates12Fiber:Does not supply energy or heat to the body.Increases and softening the bulk of the stool, promotes defecation.Absorbing organic wastes and toxins.Decreases the rate of carbohydrate breakdown and absorption.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Sources of Fiber13Lipids, dietary fats, and fat related substances:Each gram of fat contains 9 calories (twice as many as proteins and carbohydrates).Important components of cell membranes, nervous tissue, and some hormones.Essential for growth and metabolism.Stores energy in the form of body fat.Insulates and protects organs.Provides a feeling of fullness.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) Which of these are unsaturated fats?14Vitamins: Essential for normal body growth, maintenance, and resistance to infection.Helps the body use other nutrients and assists with various body processes.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) 15Minerals:Helps build and maintain body tissues and carry on life functions.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) What important mineral is found in these foods?16Water:Contributes to 65% of the body weight. Essential to the body’s normal functioning.Help maintain the balance of fluids. Lubricates the body’s moving parts.Aids in digestion.Flushes out wastes.Regulates body temperature through perspiration.Seven Basic Food Components (cont.) 17Dietary GuidelinesSuggestions for the types and quantities of food people should eat each day.US Dept of Agriculture and US Dept of Health and Human Services.18Dietary Guidelines (cont.)Variety of foodsBalance the food with physical activityEat plenty of grains, vegetables, and fruitsKeep food low in fatModerate sugar intakeModerate salt and sodiumModerate alcoholic intake19Food Guide Pyramid Use the Food Guide Pyramid to explain nutritional guidelines to patients.Know how much of a food equals a serving. Provides a general guideline Does not provide exact information about what to eat. Nutrition varies from person to person Click for Pyramid20Food Guide PyramidFats, oils, and sweetsMeat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nutsFruitVegetablesMilk, yogurt, and cheeseBread, cereal, rice, and pasta 21American Cancer Society GuidelinesEat more high fiber foodsEat plenty of dark green and deep yellow fruits and vegetables.Eat plenty of broccoli, cabbage, brussel sprouts, kohlrabi, and cauliflower.Be moderate in salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite- cured foods.Cut down on total fat intake. Avoid obesity.Be moderate in use of alcohol.22Assessing Body Fat Taken on triceps, elbow, and midway between the shoulder.Optimal percentage of body fat differs between men and women.Aging usually changes the ratio a bit because of muscle tissue being replaced by fat.Skin fold test- measures thickness of fold of skin with a caliper.23Apply Your Knowledge What are three functions of water?24Apply Your Knowledge -AnswerHelps to maintain the balance of fluids Lubricates the body’s moving partsAids in digestion What are three functions of water?25Modified DietsAdjustments in diet may involve:Restricting certain foodsEmphasizing particular foodsChanging daily caloric intakeChanging the amount of specific nutrientChanging the texture of foodsAltering the number of daily meals26Specific Nutritional NeedsPatients with:AllergiesAnemiaCancerDiabetesHypertension Heart disease Patients with:Lactose sensitivityPatients who are:PregnantOverweightChildren 27Specified Modified DietsUsed to treat or prevent certain conditions.Specific modified diets include changes for:TextureNutrient levelFrequencyTiming of mealsExclusions 28Eating DisordersAnorexia nervosa – starve themselvesBulimia – binge and purge Get help if signs appear.Extremely harmful eating behaviors that lead to health problems:29Patient EducationTeach patients about the role that nutrition plays in helping them to prevent specific medical conditions.Teach patients how to be wise consumers by reading food package labels.Be able to answer questions about diets and nutrition.30Your Role in Patient EducationRemember the following factors when doing education about nutrition: Psychological and lifestyle factors Patient’s age and family circumstances Disease and disorders Patient’s psychological condition Remind patient to eat healthfully31Apply Your KnowledgeA young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she “feels great.” What should you do?32Apply Your Knowledge -Answer Document the weight loss and report it to the physician. She may be suffering from anorexia nervosa or bulimia, two types of eating disorders that require psychotherapy.A young female patient arrives at the clinic showing a 15 pound weight loss in the last two months. Her weight is 10 pounds under the average weight for her height. She states she “feels great.” What should you do?33Summary Medical Assistant You will play a major role in educating patients about special diets and helping them implement dietary changes. You need to know the basics of metabolism and the role of calories in the diet.34End of ChapterEnd of Chapter 35
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