Innovation in entrance examination in Vietnam universities, knowledge based assessment into competency based assessment

Abstract: This paper introduces the situation of entrance examination in Hanoi University of Science and Technology. Then, this paper evaluates the relationship between the entrance exam and the learning outcomes of HUST’s students which will partly contribute to the practical fundamental of these changes. Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in enrollment exams, the paper proposes the model of competency based assessment and the steps for renew the entrance examination.

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18 . Volume 63 - No.12/2018 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE INNOVATION IN ENTRANCE EXAMINATION IN VIETNAM UNIVERSITIES, KNOWLEDGE BASED ASSESSMENT INTO COMPETENCY BASED ASSESSMENT (Case study in Group of Technical Universities) ARUN PATIL1 NGUYEN THI HUONG GIANG2 TRAN KHANH DUC2 1 Deakin University, Australlia 2 School of Engineering Pedagogy, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Abstract: This paper introduces the situation of entrance examination in Hanoi University of Science and Technology. Then, this paper evaluates the relationship between the entrance exam and the learning outcomes of HUST’s students which will partly contribute to the practical fundamental of these changes. Based on analysis of advantages and disadvantages in enrollment exams, the paper proposes the model of competency based assessment and the steps for renew the entrance examination. Keywords: Competency Based Assessment, Enrollment Examination, Learning Competence, Learning Outcomes... 1. Introduction to the Entrance Examination in Vietnam Universities All candidates, who want to be HUST students, have to attend the national exams (HUST, 2015). The national exam always is an important event of Vietnamese Education. This exam is the integration of the high school graduation exam and the college entrance exam. In this exam, candidates have to make four tests at least, such as Mathematics, Literature, Foreign Languages and one optional test in following subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, History and Geography). However, the entrance examinations are supposed to not meet the requirements of the training process at HUST. 1.1. The relationship between the enrollment grade and the training process in HUST, Vietnam To evaluate the relationship between the entrance grade and the CPA for each student, our research consider the results of 407 students in HUST (included the different schools in HUST such as ICT, Mechanics, Automation,...) Volume 63 - No.12/2018 . 19 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Automation 74 18.2 18.2 18.2 Mechanics 160 39.3 39.3 57.5 ICT 118 29.0 29.0 86.5 Chemistry 39 9.6 9.6 96.1 Electronics 1 2. 2. 96.3 Materials 3 7. 7. 97.1 Economics 2 5. 5. 97.5 Applied Mathametics 1 2. 2. 97.8 Taylors 2 5. 5. 98.3 Nuclear Engineers 6 1.5 1.5 99.8 Engineering Pedagogy 1 2. 2. 100.0 Total 407 100.0 100.0 Table 2. The quantity of surveyed students in each school belonged to HUST - Statistics of the average grades in entracne exams at HUST Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid From 5.3 to 7.0 84 20.6 20.6 20.6 to 8.0 7.0 > 148 36.4 36.4 57.0 Above 8.0 175 43.0 43.0 100.0 Total 407 100.0 100.0 Table 3. The average grades in the entrance exams (max. of 10.0) - Statictics of the CPA values of the second-year students at HUST Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 1.0< 93 22.9 22.9 22.9 2-2.49 131 32.2 32.2 55.0 2.5-3.19 139 34.2 34.2 89.2 3.2-4.0 44 10.8 10.8 100.0 Total 407 100.0 100.0 Table 4. CPA values (Max. of 4.0) The relationship between the entrance point and the CPA is analysised through Chi-square test (Hoang Trong Chu, Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc, 2008). The result of Chi-square test is described in the following table: 20 . Volume 63 - No.12/2018 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE Chi-Square Tests Value df (Asymp. Sig. (2-sided Pearson Chi-Square 33.423a 6 000. Likelihood Ratio 32.741 6 000. Linear-by-Linear Association 25.806 1 000. N of Valid Cases 407 a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.19. Thus, the Chi-square value is 33.423. Looking at the Table for The limited values of Chi-square, at the value of df = 6 and the meaning value of 0.995, the limited value of Chi-square is 18.5>33.423. Then, there is a relationship between the enrollment grades and CPA of each student. To determine the relationship in specic (relational dimension), we consider the value of tau-b, gamma, Spearman correlation. Directional Measures Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb Approx. .Sig Ordinal by Ordinal Somers' d Symmetric 226. 043. 5.100 000. Diemtt_new Dependent 253. 047. 5.100 000. CPA_new Dependent 205. 040. 5.100 000. a. Not assuming the null hypothesis. b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. Symmetric Measures Value Asymp. Std. Errora Approx. Tb Approx. .Sig Ordinal by Ordinal Kendall's tau-b 228. 043. 5.100 000. Gamma 389. 071. 5.100 000. Spearman Correlation 250. 047. 5.206 000c. Interval by Interval Pearson's R 252. 048. 5.243 000c. N of Valid Cases 407 .a. Not assuming the null hypothesis b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis. c. Based on normal approximation. Volume 63 - No.12/2018 . 21 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE As a result of tau-b value, gamma, Spearman correlation, we found a positive correlation exists between the two quantities, Enrollment Grades and CPA values. In summary, there is an exist of the relationship between Enrollment Grades and CPA values of the second-year students in HUST. Then, the quality of the training process in universities is inuenced by the enrollment grades. So that, the next reseach will introduce the meet of the entrance exams and the requirements of the training process in HUST 1.2. The gap between the entrance exams and the requirements of the training process in HUST In the surveys about the requirement of training at HUST (Tran Khanh Duc and Colleagues, 2016), only 5.2% of the surveyed students said that the contents of the entrance exam meet the requirements of the learning process at a very high level. Up to 49.9% of the surveyed students said that the contents of the college entrance exam to meet the requirements of the learning process at a high level. However, the percentage of students supposed the low level is up to 37.6%. And also 7.4% of the students said that this response is at very low level. This ratio also reects the need to adjust the contents of the current entrance exam, to suit the requirements in training process at HUST. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Very low 30 7.4 7.4 7.4 Low 153 37.6 37.6 45.0 High 203 49.9 49.9 94.8 Very High 21 5.2 5.2 100.0 Total 407 100.0 100.0 Table 1. Evaluate the content of entrance exams can meet the requirements of the current school subjects that you are studying at HUST? Very low / Low / High / Very High The spectrum of the average grade in the Entrance Exams of the year 2015 is illustrated in the gure 1. Figure 1. The spectrum of the average grade in the Entrance Examination at the school of ICT, HUST in 2015 22 . Volume 63 - No.12/2018 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE The school of ICT always attracts the excellent candidates to enroll. As seen in the gure 1, all candidates in the school of ICT (HUST) have high average grades in enrollment exams, above 7.8(/10). However, this results is not synchronous with the CPA values for second- year students as considering the distribution of the CPA in the graph below: Figure 2. Distribution of CPA values of the second-year students in HUST Although there are some changes in the national exams in recent time, the exams mostly are not suit to the requirement of the training process in HUST, specially in evaluation the creation, the ability of solving problems,... 2. Competency Based Assessment Model Competency Based Assessment is considered as one of the main approach of learning outcomes assessment at present. Accordingly, these assessments are integrated and closely linked to both the learning processes and the jobs. Competency Based Assessments conrm, adjust and develop the competence of the students by organizing the learning activities in case- studies. In each case study, there is a merge of the knowledge and skills into a completely scientic and practical structure of learner capability that relates to the job. There are many types of learning task such as: Task of accumulating scientic knowledge; Task of practicing the cognitive thinking; Task of training hands-out skills and Task of training the learner’s personality. Depending on the types of leaning tasks, learner can do the learning activities such as: study on class; self-study; team work; seminar/ presentation/project/role play/simulation; store the learning prole; self- assessment in each learning task. Volume 63 - No.12/2018 . 23 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE The Syllabus of the subject O Learning Outcomes Learning Content (Teaching and Self- learning Integrate - Continue Learning Tasks Self Learning Teaching Assessment Goals Assessment Standards Assessment Content Competence Based Assessment Firgure 3. The structure of Competency Based Assessment Model (Duc, Learning Competence and Competency Based Assessment, 2016) Approaching to action methods, learning competences is tha abilities of doing a various of learning activities. The structures of the learning competence in the model of competency based assessment: - Perceptual Competences: the ability to observe and identify the traits, characteristics, relationships, the process of things, phenomena in nature, society and the production/ services. - Thinking competences: the ability to analyze, synthesize, logically think, calculate, generalize, systematize the issues, opinions, events, phenomena ... - Language competences: the ability to use language as a second signal system in communication activities, expressions, argument; presentations, making essay, persuasive, listening, empathy, express feelings ..) - Adaptive competence: the ability of handling sensitive, exible situations, moving skills to implement new activities, share, evolution; coordination, teamwork ... - Action competence: the ability to perform actions, gestures, procient use of tools, vehicles, action process, the tectonic. - Communication competence: the ability to work toghether, team work.. 24 . Volume 63 - No.12/2018 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE Figure 4. Core learning competences (Duc, 2015) Types of assessment exercises: - Identify, classify and analyze, review, evaluate, explain, comment, events, phenomena, natural relationships, social and career. For example: classifying materials, equipment, techniques and instruments; structural analysis, technical process; explain the phenomenon, causes, technical problems - Process information / situation / problem solving. For example, processing situations and explosives; solve the problem of material deformation in machining processes, save energy. - Calculate and logical thinking; apply the rules / principles / theories Example: Calculating the technical parameters of capacity, power consumption, materials consumption; the dimensions of the parts. - Drawing and design, use of standards / symbols / convention / diagram / picture / color / shape / size... Example: Applying technical standards, read and draw technical drawings; determine the shape, the size of the tool or product; Select and use the possibilities for color schemes... - Expressing and argue orally-writing (essay / presentation / exchange...) For example, the displacement process engineering projects; Write describes the structure and technical process. - Analyze, classify, compare and apply the methods, tools and rules. Volume 63 - No.12/2018 . 25 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE For example: compares the metalworking method, electric welding process analysis, operational procedures of pumps. - Implementation of actions, action movement (operation, repair / maintain tools, equipment) - Synthetic Exercises (Assignments / Projects subject / Research-thematic experience ...) 3. Innovation in the enrollment examination - Procedure of competency based assessment in the enrollment examination: Figure 5. Procedure of competency based assessment in the enrollment examination Building the question bank for enrollment examination according to competency based assessment model 26 . Volume 63 - No.12/2018 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE - Implementation the enrollment examination according to competency based assessment in trial phase - Steps for organizing the enrollment examination according to competency based assessment Volume 63 - No.12/2018 . 27 RESEARCH, EXCHANGE In conclusion, learning is a basic activity of human beings and learning is forming the suffcient competency of each person to meet the needs of their lives and society. Learning competency based assessment is an evaluation process based on objectives and learning content in order to determine the level of competence is formed at certain learning process. Literature D T K T C Competence. V N U D T K L C C B A E E T T C H H U S T P H T C C N M N A SPSS H C M V HD P HUST T HUST R T K D C C B A H HUST P