The status of using integrated teaching in education scientific research methods for students in educational universities

Abstract. Educational scientific research methods (ESRM) is a module that plays an important role in helping educational students to improve their self-study ability, scientific research capacity, further access to professional practice and meet the output standards of teacher training programs at educational universities. This paper analyzes the status of teaching ESRM for students in educational universities using an integrated perspective. The results of the survey showed that, lecturers mainly used “Intradisciplinary” and “Integrating/combining”. Lecturers used a combination of a number of positive teaching methods, teaching techniques. However, lecturers still mainly used traditional teaching methods, the main teaching organization used is “Teaching in class”, the form of assessment is not diverse. Based on findings, we propose solutions to improve the effectiveness of teaching this module at universities of education, contributing to the training of future teachers who are able to work independently, creatively, to conduct scientific research, and to adapt quickly to constant changes in educational practice.

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61 HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE Educational Sciences, 2020, Volume 64, Issue 4B, pp. 61-72 This paper is available online at THE STATUS OF USING INTEGRATED TEACHING IN EDUCATION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH METHODS FOR STUDENTS IN EDUCATIONAL UNIVERSITIES Pham Thi Dieu Thuy Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy, Hanoi National University of Education Abstract. Educational scientific research methods (ESRM) is a module that plays an important role in helping educational students to improve their self-study ability, scientific research capacity, further access to professional practice and meet the output standards of teacher training programs at educational universities. This paper analyzes the status of teaching ESRM for students in educational universities using an integrated perspective. The results of the survey showed that, lecturers mainly used “Intradisciplinary” and “Integrating/combining”. Lecturers used a combination of a number of positive teaching methods, teaching techniques. However, lecturers still mainly used traditional teaching methods, the main teaching organization used is “Teaching in class”, the form of assessment is not diverse. Based on findings, we propose solutions to improve the effectiveness of teaching this module at universities of education, contributing to the training of future teachers who are able to work independently, creatively, to conduct scientific research, and to adapt quickly to constant changes in educational practice. Keywords: Status of teaching, teaching using an integrated perspective, educational scientific research methods, students in educational universities. 1. Introduction Scientific research in general and educational scientific research in particular are considered the theoretical foundation for educational reforms and decisions. The Resolution of the 8th Plenums of the 11th Party Central Committee on fundamental and comprehensive innovation in education and training clearly stated: “Improving the quality and effectiveness of scientific and technological research and application, especially educational science and management science”, as well as specified one of the innovative tasks and solutions is “Strengthening the capacity, improving the quality and effectiveness of scientific research, technology transfer of higher education institutions. Closely linking training and research, between training institutions and production and business establishments. Prioritizing investment in the development of basic sciences, spearhead sciences, key laboratories, specialized laboratories, hi-tech centers, and modern test production establishments in a number of higher education institutions. Adopting policies to encourage pupils and students to participate in scientific research” [1]. Nguyen Canh Toan (2001) also emphasized in the importance of scientific research in general and educational scientific research in particular for educational universities, especially confirmed the responsibility of the lecturers at universities to inspire students to exercise, explore and research [2]. In the national education system, educational universities have an important task to organize training and develop the capacity of educational scientific research, create a scientific environment Received April 13, 2020. Revised April 21, 2020. Accepted May 14 2020. Contact: Pham Thi Dieu Thuy, e-mail address: thuyptd@hnue.edu.vn Pham Thi Dieu Thuy 62 for learners to have enough qualifications and skills, access to new educational programs. Students’ learning and research activities are a decisive condition for the process of formation and personality development of teachers in the future. Therefore, innovation in teaching in general and in teaching module ESRM in particular is one of the urgent measures to contribute to improving the capacity of self-study and scientific research capacity for students of educational universities, helping to train the generation of teachers who meet the output standards of educational universities. According to Xavier Roegers (1996), the goal of integrated teaching is to “make learning processes not isolated from everyday life... to ensure that each student has the ability to effectively mobilize knowledge and ability to effectively deal with a situation that appears, and if possible, to face an unexpected difficulty, an unprecedented situation” [3]. Integrated teaching is a pedagogical perpective in which learners need to mobilize all resources to solve a complex and problematic situation in order to develop individual competencies and qualities [4]. In an integrated teaching process, teaching activities, knowledge, skills and attitudes of learners are integrated together in the same content based on practical situations, professional activities to shape and develop capacity for learners [5]. Especially, integrated thematic learning can improve the motivation and competence of learners and integrated learning can occur in events around the students life [6]. The collection of information and analysis of the status of teaching module ESRM for students of educational universities from integrated perspective in the current period will contribute to building a practical basis and propose feasible measures to guide lecturers in the process of organizing integrated teaching activities. 2. Content 2.1. Research methods The survey was conducted on 77 managers and lecturers, of which 53 lecturers took part in teaching ESRM at 11 universities of education. These universities include Hanoi National University of Education, VNU University of Education, Thai Nguyen University of Education, Hai Phong University, Ha Long University, Vinh University, Hue University of Education, Da Nang University of Education, Ho Chi Minh City University of Education, Can Tho University and Vinh Long University of Technology Education and 816 students of 6 universities including Hanoi National University of Education, Thai Nguyen University of Education, Da Nang University of Education, Can Tho University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Education. To carry out the research on the mentioned situation, we used a mixed research approach. Research method included: Interviews, classroom observation, Anket questionnaire, we used SPSS 22.0 statistical software to analyze the data. We designed two questionnaires, one for managers and lecturers and one for students of educational universities. Two questionnaires for managers, lecturers and students were assessed by the Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. Rating scale: For questions using a 5-level Likert scale, we used a range of average values and the corresponding level of evaluation as follows [7]: Average value range The corresponding rating level 1.00 – 1.80 Unnecessary / Unimportant / Never / Very low impact / Poor 1.81 – 2.60 Less Needed / Less Important / Rarely / Low Impact / Weak 2.61 – 3.40 Normal / Occasional / Relatively Effective / Moderate 3.41 – 4.20 Needed / Important / Regular / High impact/ Fair 4.21 – 5.00 Very necessary / Very important / Very often / Very high impact / Good The status of using integrated teaching in education scientific research methods for students 63 2.2. Research results 2.2.1. The status of integrated teaching at educational universities To find out the situation of integrated teaching in educational universities, we asked the question “To what extent you implement integrated teaching in your teaching process?” for 77 managers and lecturers in the survey area. The results showed that 13/77 lecturers (accounting for 16.9%) answered that they were “very regular” and 44/77 lecturers (accounting for 57.1%) answered that they “often” conducted integrated teaching in the teaching process; 20/77 lecturers (corresponding to 26.0%) responded to the “Occasional” level, with no idea of choosing the “Rarely” and “Never” levels. The average value of the teacher's choices in this question is �̅� = 3.91, which shows that the lecturers of educational universities conducted integrated teaching at a “Regular” level in their teaching. Thus, lecturers in the survey area have implemented integrated teaching and appreciated the role of integrated teaching in the teaching process at educational universities. Table 1. Integrated forms used in the teaching process by the lecturers of educational universities No. Integrated forms Rating level (%) �̅� SD Rank 1 2 3 4 5 1 Intradisciplinary 1.3 2.6 27.3 54.5 0.0 3.78 0.772 1 2 Integrating/Combining 0.0 13.0 16.9 64.9 5.2 3.62 0.779 2 3 Multidisciplinary 1.3 31.2 40.3 20.8 6.5 3.00 0.918 5 4 Interdisciplinary 1.3 18.2 31.2 45.5 3.9 3.32 0.865 4 5 Grouped by integrated topics 1.3 7.8 41.6 42.9 6.5 3.45 0.787 3 6 Transdisciplinary 10.4 28.6 40.3 16.9 3.9 2.75 0.989 6 Notes: 1 = Never; 2 = Rarely; 3 = Occasional; 4 = Regular; 5 = Very regular Table 1 shows the integrated forms used by educational universities’ lecturers in the teaching process. In particular, the form of “Intradisciplinary” is used by lecturers at the most level with �̅� = 3.78, SD = 0.772 (at the first rank) and followed by the form of “Integrating/combining” with �̅� = 3.62, SD = 0.779 (rank 2), “Grouped by integrated topics” with �̅� = 3.45, SD = 0.787 (rank 3). The least used form is “Transdisciplinary” with �̅� = 2.75, SD = 0.989 (ranked at 6th). As such, lectures of educational universities have used integrated teaching in their teaching process but mostly in the form of integration within the subject knowledge or integrating/combining related knowledge with the subject they are teaching. 2.2.2. The status of teaching Educational scientific research methods for students of educational universities from integrated perspective Evaluation of managers and lecturers on the necessity of teaching module ESRM for students of educational universities from integrated perspective shows that there were 40/77 managers and lecturers (accounting for 51.9%) who assessed that teaching ESRM for students in educational universities using integrated perspective is “Very necessary”; 34/77 reviews (accounting for 44.2%) rated it “necessary” and only 3 reviews (corresponding to 3.9%) chose the “Normal” level, no review selected the “Less Necessary” level and “Unnecessary” level. The average value of the reviews in this question is �̅� = 4.48, which shows that managers and lecturers of educational universities evaluated the implementation of teaching this module from integrated perspective at “Very necessary" level. Integrated form used most by lectures of educational universities in the teaching process of ESRM is the form “Endocrine integration” with �̅� = 3.72, SD = 0.662 (1st rank, level “Regular”) Pham Thi Dieu Thuy 64 and form “Integrating/combining” with �̅� = 3.34, SD = 0.898 (2nd rank, level “Occasionally”). The form “Grouped by integrated topics” is used at the level “Occasionally” with �̅� = 3.25, SD = 0.806 (ranked at 3rd). The least commonly used form of integration is “Transdisciplinary” with �̅� = 2.42, SD = 1,027 (ranked at 6th, the “Rarely” level). Thus, in teaching ESRM from integrated perspective, lecturers at educational universities have used the integrated forms within the subject knowledge or integrating/combining related knowledge with the ESRM module. To learn more about what content of the module ESRM was taught by the lecturers from integrated perspective and what knowledge or modules have been integrated with the content of the module, we asked question 10 in the questionnaire for lecturers. Results are shown in Tables 2 and 3 below. Table 2. Contents of ESRM which can be taught by lecturers using an integrated perspective No. Contents f % Rank 1 At all the lessons 7 13.2 7 2 Within the section “General foundations of educational scientific research” 14 26.4 5 3 Within the section “Identify educational scientific research topic and build a theoretical basis for the research topic” 29 54.7 2 4 Within the section “Methods of educational scientific research” 37 69.8 1 5 Within section “Process of implementing an educational scientific research project” 26 49.1 3 6 Only in some possible lessons 16 30.2 4 7 Only in the simple parts of knowledge 5 9.4 8 8 Only in the difficult knowledge, highly applicable 10 18.9 6 9 Never done 2 3.8 9 Table 2 shows that the content selected by the lecturers to integrate the most is “Methods of educational scientific research” with 37/53 selected ideas (accounting for 69.8%, ranked at 1st), The next section is “Identify educational scientific research topic and build a theoretical basis for the research topic” with 29/53 selected ideas (accounting for 54.7%, ranked at 2nd) and the section “Process of implementing an educational scientific research project” with 26/53 selected ideas (accounting for 49.1%, ranked at 3rd). There are 16/52 (corresponding to 30.2%) lecturers that chose the answers “Only integrated in some possible lessons" and 10/53 (corresponding to 18.9%) that chose the answer "Only integrated in the difficult knowledge, highly applicable”; only 2/53 lecturers (accounting for 3.8%) answered “Never done”. As such, most lecturers have conducted integrated teaching in areas that require the ability to mobilize the combined knowledge and skills of fields related to educational science as well as self-study, ability to work independently and creatively of students as the content of the methods of educational scientific research, how to identify an educational scientific research project, build a theoretical basis for a research topic and the steps to implement a research topic in the field of educational science. Table 3. Contents of knowledge or modules have been integrated with the content of module ESRM for educational universities’ students No. Modules/Contents of knowledge Lecturers Students f % rank f % rank 1 Psychology 45 84.9 2 535 65.6 2 2 Pedagogy 47 88.7 1 634 77.7 1 3 Philosophy 20 37.7 6 224 27.5 6 4 Logic 30 56.6 5 304 37.3 5 The status of using integrated teaching in education scientific research methods for students 65 5 Probability and Statistics 39 73.6 3 380 46.6 3 6 Statistical software (SPSS, excel, etc.) 33 62.3 4 343 42.0 4 Table 3 shows the contents of knowledge or modules that the lecturers have integrated with the content of ESRM. In particular, the content of knowledge in the module used by the lecturers to integrate most is Pedagogy with the selection of 47/53 lecturers (accounting for 88.7%, ranked at 1st) and 634 / 816 students (accounting for 77.7%, ranked at 1st); followed by Psychology with the choice of 45/53 lecturers (accounting for 84.9%, ranked at 2nd) and 535/816 students (65.6%, ranked at 2nd). The next knowledge contents are Probability and Statistics (with 39/53 lecturers accounting for 73.6% and 380/816 students accounting for 46.6%, ranking at 3rd), SPSS statistical software , Excel (with 33/53 lecturers accounting for 62.3% and 343/816 students accounting for 42.0%, ranked at 4th), Logic (with 30/53 lecturers accounting for 56.6% and 304/816 students accounting for 37.3%, ranked at 5th) and Philosophy (with 20/53 lecturers accounting for 37.7% and 224/816 students accounting for 27.5%, ranked at 6th). Table 4. Teaching methods used in teaching ESRM for educational universities’ students using an integrated perspective Data from Table 4 shows that teaching methods that lecturers self-assess using at the “Regular” level when conducting teaching of ESRM using an integrated perspective are “Group discussion” (ranked 1st), “Training and practice method” (ranked 2nd), “Problem solving” (ranked 3rd), “Question and answer teaching" (ranked 4th), “Presentation” (ranked 5th) and “Teaching through scientific research” (ranked 6th). The methods that lecturers self-assess using at the “Occasional” level are “Visual” (ranked 7th), “Situational teaching” (ranked 8th), “Project-based teaching” (ranked 9th) and “Differentiated teaching” (ranked 10th). The methods that self-assessed by lecturers at the “Rarely” level are: “WebQuest teaching” (ranked 11th), “Gaming method” (ranked 12th), “Role playing method” (ranked 13th) and “Contract teaching” (ranked 14th). Students’ assessment of the teaching methods that lecturers used in teaching ESRM using an integrated perspective are as follows: The teaching methods that lecturers used at the “Regular” level is “Problem solving” (ranked first), “Group discussion” (ranked second), “Training and practice methods” (ranked third), “Presentation” (ranked fourth) and “Question and answer teaching” (ranked fifth); The teaching methods that lecturers used at the “Occasional” level are “Visual” (ranked 6th), “Situational teaching" (ranked 7th), “Teaching through scientific research” (ranked 8th) and “Gaming method” (ranked 9th); The teaching methods that lecturers used at the No. Teaching methods Lecturers Students �̅� SD Rank �̅� SD Rank 1 Presentation 3.72 0.907 5 3.77 0.860 4 2 Question and answer teaching 3.74 0.625 4 3.65 0.836 5 3 Visual 3.34 0.732 7 3.39 0.923 6 4 Training and practice method 4.11 0.640 2 3.79 0.784 3 5 Problem solving 3.83 0.893 3 4.05 0.798 1 6 Group discussion 4.21 0.661 1 3.93 0.863 2 7 Project-based teaching 2.87 1.001 9 2.51 1.090 10 8 Situational teaching 3.32 0.915 8 2.90 1.100 7 9 Contract teaching 2.36 0.857 14 2.03 1.036 14 10 WebQuest Teaching - discover online 2.60 1.007 11 2.23 1.106 12 11 Teaching through scientific research 3.53 0.749 6 2.82 1.126 8 12 Role playing method 2.55 0.889 13 2.48 1.119 11 13 Gaming method 2.58 0.865 12 2.69 1.165 9 14 Differentiated teaching 2.75 0.875 10 2.19 1.054 13 Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient R = 0.916** Sig. (2-tailed) Sig. = 0.000 Pham Thi Dieu Thuy 66 “Rarely” level are “Project-based teaching” (ranked 10th), “Role-playing method” (ranked 11th), “WebQuest Teaching - discover online” (ranked 12th), “Differentiated teaching” (ranked 13th) and “Contract teaching” (ranked 14th). Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient R = 0.916 with Sig. = 0.000 <0.01 shows that there is a high degree of agreement between lecturers and students about the teaching methods that the lecturers used in the teaching process of ESRM using an integrated perspective. The above results show that, when carrying out teaching ESRM using an integrated perspective, lecturers of educational universities still used at the “regular” level of traditional teaching methods such as “Presentation”, “Question and answer teaching” and “Training and practice methods”. Besides, lecturers have used some positive teaching methods at a “regular” level, such as “Group discussion”, “Solving problems” and “Teaching through scientific research”. Table 5. Teaching techniques used in teaching ESRM for educational universities’ students using an integrated perspective Table 5 shows the status of the use of teaching techniques in the course of teaching module ESRM using an integrated perspective of lecturers at educational universities. The above data shows that only two teaching techniques that lecturers self-assess using at the “Regular” level are “Task assignment technique” (�̅� = 3.64, SD = 1.002, ranked 1st) and “Summary of document content in groups” (�̅� = 3.58, SD = 0.989, ranked 2nd); There are 8 teaching techniques that lecturers evaluate to use at the “Occasional” level, respectively, “Mind map” (ranked 3rd), “Sharing in pair technique" (ranked 4th), “Argument for support and opposition" (ranked 5th), “Feedback technique in teaching process” (ranked 6th),