Developing the student’s self - Study abilities through the exercises in "Chapter 6: Alkali metals alkaline earth metals - aluminum" advanced Chemistry 12

Abstract. Innovating the teaching and learning methods with main purpose of advancing to quality improvement in the direction of developing the learners’ ability are becoming inescapable trend in current education. The student’s cognitive abilities can be developed in teaching chemistry through the various methods. Developing the self-study ability for students through exercises is one of the most effective methods. The article introduces some measures to develop self-learning ability for pupils through teaching the exercises in "Chapter 6: Alkali metals - Alkaline Earth Metals - Aluminum”. Thus helps the teachers use chemistry exercises flexibly and effectively in the process of chemistry teaching which guides pupils make well self-learning, self - reading and self-assessment of studying results.

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HNUE JOURNAL OF SCIENCE DOI: 10.18173/2354-1075.2017-0127 Educational Sci., 2017, Vol. 62, Iss. 6, pp. 45-52 This paper is available online at DEVELOPING THE STUDENT’S SELF - STUDY ABILITIES THROUGH THE EXERCISES IN "CHAPTER 6: ALKALI METALS ALKALINE EARTH METALS - ALUMINUM" ADVANCED CHEMISTRY 12 Nguyen Thi Kim Anh1, Dang Thi Oanh2, Tran Anh Tuan3 1Faculty of Chemistry, Quy Nhon University 2Faculty of Chemistry, Hanoi National University of Education, 3College of Quang Ngai Abstract. Innovating the teaching and learning methods with main purpose of advancing to quality improvement in the direction of developing the learners’ ability are becoming inescapable trend in current education. The student’s cognitive abilities can be developed in teaching chemistry through the various methods. Developing the self-study ability for students through exercises is one of the most effective methods. The article introduces some measures to develop self-learning ability for pupils through teaching the exercises in "Chapter 6: Alkali metals - Alkaline Earth Metals - Aluminum”. Thus helps the teachers use chemistry exercises flexibly and effectively in the process of chemistry teaching which guides pupils make well self-learning, self - reading and self-assessment of studying results. Keywords: Self-learning competency, competency of self-learning development, chemistry exercises, exercises of competency development. 1. Introduction In the process of teaching, chemistry exercises are either purpose or content as well as an effectively teaching method. Chemistry exercises is one of the basic means for teaching pupils with main purpose of transforming the knowledge gained through the lectures into their own knowledge so as to apply the learned knowledge to the life realities, production and practice of scientific research. Chemistry exercises in accordance with direction of ability development have been studied by many authors such as [2, 4, 6-8],... refering to how to make use of either exercises or method of exercise solution so as to develop both ability of problem settlement and effectiveness of using chemistry exercises for ability development without mentioning the measures in order to develop pupil’s self-study abilities through the chemistry exercises. In this article, we present theoretical basis or sound argument and three measures to develop pupil’s self-learning abilities through the exercises in "chapter 6: Alkali metals – Alkaline earth metals – Aluminum" in book of advanced chemistry 12 with main purpose of pedagogic practices so as to form pupil’s self-study abilities at grade of high school. Received date: 6/3/2017. Published date: 15/6/2017. Contact: Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, e-mail: nguyenthikimanh@qnu.edu.vn 45 Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Dang Thi Oanh, Tran Anh Tuan 2. Content 2.1. Method of studying Making use of the methods such as: analysis, synthesis, and systematization in the process of relevant document studying. Investigating the practical situation of using the homework, self-learning problems and pedagogic practice so as to test the reality validity of the researched results. Using the methods of mathematical statistics to process the data with accurate comments, authentic assessment. 2.2. Research facilities Setting up the questionnaires, intruction self-study exercises, assessed tests, spreadsheet, and formulas of mathematical statistics; 2.3. Research objects - Chemistry exercises in "chapter 6: Alkali metals – Alkaline earth metals – Aluminum" under the program of Advanced Chemistry 12 so as to develop the self-learning ability for pupils. - Measures for developing the self-learning ability for pupils. 2.4. Results of research and discussion 2.4.1. Self-study ability of high school pupils a. Concept of self-learning ability According to author Le Cong Triem [5]: "Self-learning ability is the ability of exploring, perceiving and applying the real knowledge into new situations or similar situations with high quality". General characteristics of self-learning ability are self-awareness, self-reliant knowledge to achieve the knowledge. The ability mentioned above is the ability of the scientific researcher. Therefore, only by placing himself into the researcher position can pupils train the self-learning ability. Self-learning ability is very important because self-learning is accepted as the crucial key so as to enter the 21st century which is considered as with all one’s life learning, people learning and society learning. Only by having self-learning ability can pupils learn with all ones’ life. b. The structure of self-learning ability Basing on the concept of self-learning ability, the textbook program and the goal of chemistry teaching, the self-learning ability of high school pupils through the chemistry consists of 5 main following components: - The ability to identify, explore and detect the problems. - Ability to solve problems. - The ability to identify the correct conclusions from the process of problem settlement. - Ability to apply knowledge into reality. - Ability to verify and self assessment. c. The manifestations of self-learning ability through chemistry exercises Only by identifying the specific manifestations of this ability can high school pupils develope and evaluate the self-learning ability. Basing on the concept of self-learning ability 46 Developing the student’s self - study abilities through the exercises in... mentioned above, the self-learning ability through the chemistry exercises will have the following manifestations: - Determining the studying tasks and orientation to strive further more as learning theory and solving the chemistry exercises. - Setting out the targets of specific learning with special details so as to improve the weak points as solving the chemistry exercises. - Evaluating and adjusting the studying plan at chemistry subject. - Forming the way of learning and solution to solve chemistry exercises for themselves. - Ransacking the resources of appropriate documents to support the settlement of chemistry exercises. - Recording the read information in appropriate forms which are convenient for memorization, usage, supplementation when encountering the exercises of interesting chemistry. - Making self-realization and correcting their errors and limitations during the process of problem settlement. - Thoroughly thinking of the way to solve their exercises with main purpose of zeroing out the most precious experiences so as to be able to share and use when solving other chemistry exercises. - Drawing out and adjusting the best solution so as to improve the quality as solving the chemistry exercises. 2.4.2. Some measures to develop self-learning ability for pupils through the exercises in "chapter 6: Alkali metals – Alkaline earth metals – Aluminum" Measure 1: Using practical exercises to develop self - learning ability Exercises of practical chemistry is the best suited for self-studying at home in where pupils have a lot of time to thoroughly think and exchange each other or to those people with practical problems in the exercises. Because most pupils are not used to using chemical knowledge to solve some problems in real practice in spite of the fact that exercises of practical chemistry is not too difficult. Teachers should bring the exercises of practical chemistry into the teaching process, especially during the hours of revision - practice or assign the homework to pupils. Example 1: When teaching "Revision lesson: Properties of alkali metals, alkaline - earth metals". Teachers should use the exercise: "To extinguish the fires caused by oil or gas, it now uses a dry powder of fire extinguisher with the major component of sodium hidrocacbonate (NaHCO3) bringing back higher efficiency when being compared with using extinguisher of foam fire hose. Explaining the phenomenon why using dry powder of fire extinguisher is more effective than using extinguisher of foam fire hose"? Self reading the textbooks is not enough knowledge compared to the established requirements. To thoroughly and deeply understand with the most accurate answer, the pupils should themselves look up their knowledge through the internet, scientific books, research documents .... Expanding self-learning thought is narrowed not only in the textbook but also in the mass media. Pupils can update their knowledge, applications of the other latest scientific masterpieces. Example 2: In the caves of the Limestone Mountains, many stalactites have formed a curtain of magnificent stone in which some places have formed a stalagmite forest. In some other places, stalactites and stalagmites forms the pillars of great stone (stalactites and stalagmites are linked together) with beautiful appearance. By your understanding, could you explain the formation of 47 Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Dang Thi Oanh, Tran Anh Tuan stalactites and stalagmites? Picture 1. The formation of stalactites inside the cave Organizing the tours, self-studying for pupils through activities of practical experience which is considered as a way of new learning in order for students themselves to conduct a masterpiece of small and simple research about science with main purpose of setting out a plan of specific action so as to write the reports about the things harvested about "looked with eyes, heard with ears" about the natural phenomenon mentioned above. Clarifying the point of view "Travelling forms a young man" in order to develop the skills of self-using knowledge, chemical skills to solve practical situations. Measure 2: Using drawn image exercises to develop self learning ability The drawn image can concretize the verbal expression which acts as a mediator between reality and thought. Concretizing the abstract things and vice versa also abstracts and simplifies the complicated things. Exercises of drawn image have the effect of forming and strengthening the practical skills during the pupil’s self-studying period. Illustrative example: During the hour of revision exercise "Training: Characteristics of Aluminum and its Compound" (Advanced chemistry 12). Teachers should integrate the following thing into the exercise: When slowly and excessively dropping the solution of NaOH into the mixture of a mol of HCl and b mol AlCl3, the experimental results are shown in the following graph: Picture 2. Graph shows the results of the experiment Proportion a : b is A. 4: 3. B. 2: 3. C. 1: 1. D. 2: 1. The above exercise with main purpose of practising the self-observation ability, self-verification ability of theoretical knowledge learned in the textbook and the importance is the ability to self-analyze the empirical data. Self-analyzing requires pupils to mobilize all relevant knowledge, collecting and assessing the data with scientific accuracy. On contrary, the highly promoting the independence, sovereignty, self-experimental ability, the graphical representation can be based on empirically collected data; Promoting the ability to independently work so as to turn pupils into real scientists. 48 Developing the student’s self - study abilities through the exercises in... Measure 3: Using deductive logic exercises to develop self learning ability Confronting with a mathematic exercise, the logically self-deducting so as to grasp the assumptions in the topic, preliminarily understanding the author’s intent is very necessary. Finding out the problem of the mathematic exercise so as to imagine the process of interpretation and where to begin. Finally self - looking if any better way and faster? During testing and reviewing; used exercises are not only to reappear knowledge but also to focus on checking the creatively independent ability such as: Example 1: Al2O3 molten electrolysis with graphite electrodes, obtains m kilogram Al at the cathode and 89.6 m3 (standard condition) mixture X at the anode. The mass of X relative to H2 is 16.7. 1.12 liters of X (standard condition) reacts with an excess Ca(OH)2 solution, obtaining 1,5 grams precipitate. The reactions occur completely, the value of m is A. 115.2. B. 82.8. C. 144.0. D. 104.4. With above exercise, the pupils will immediately discover some problems that need to be learned, and learn that graphite is made of carbon (C) thus the obtained mixture of X that usually contains CO, CO and excess O2. With pupils who have good logically deductive skills , "subtle" comments, more easily solve the problem. Example 2: Mixture X consists of Na, Ba, Na2O and BaO. Completely dissolving 2.19 grams of X into water obtains 0.112 liters of H2 (standard condition) and solution Y which 2.052 grams Ba(OH)2. Fully absorbing 0.672 liters of CO2 (standard condition) into Y obtains m gram of precipitate. The value of m is A. 2.364. B. 1.576. C. 2.192. D. 3.940. The most common path mostly conducted by pupils is to write the equations of happened chemistry and make algebraic equations. This method is bit complicated because of containing many enigmas wasting time and sometimes not finding the result. If you regularly search for reference documents, always foster you with skills of self - solving exercises, pupils can find that the mixture X consists of many substances, but actually only three elements are Na, Ba, O. High versatility, creativity and inference that help pupils quickly to convert the mixture X into three elements Na, Ba and O; Pupils combine the law of electron conservation to interpret the above exercise. Only by taking self - learning which requires much in practice, can pupils have skill of logical deduction, problem detection and well problem solving, self - summarizing experience, adjusting and improving themselves for a long time. Exercises of chemistry purely help pupils develop their self - thinking ability, creating by their own new paths suitable with themselves in a new situation. 2.5. Result of pedagogical experiment Result of pedagogical experiment has been conducted in the school year of 2016-2017 at Eahleo High School and Phan Chu Trinh High School in Daklak, with 151 pupils. The result as follow: 2.5.1. Qualitative results When observing the pupils’ activities with following comment: pupils were very active, enthusiastic, excited and self-conscious in self-learning activities. For pupils, the questionnaire after pedagogical experiment was used which was assessed and answered as follows: 49 Nguyen Thi Kim Anh, Dang Thi Oanh, Tran Anh Tuan + About skills: practising the self-learning skill in science; analytical skill so as to apply knowledge to solve problems related to reality. + About attitude: pupils self-assess that they showed the positiveness, self-learning, seriously working and having the deep recognition about problem in social reality. 2.5.2. Metering result Table 1. Synthesis of characteristic parameters through tests Tests Class Number of pupils X S S2 V (%) Level of influcence ES No 1 Experiment 74 7.42 1.31 1.72 17.65 0.76 Control 77 6.21 1.58 2.48 25.44 No 2 Experiment 74 7.51 1.39 1.92 18.51 0.65 Control 77 6.40 1.70 2.90 26.56 Table 1 shows that: Experiment pupil’s arithmetic average mark is higher than ones in control class; (in the range of 10 - 30%, reliable results) pupil’s V in experiment class is always smaller than that of pupil’s control class indicating the mark dispersion of pupil’s control class is wider than experiment class’s, the quality of the experiment class is always better than control class. The Infulence level of both cases is in the range from 0.65 to 0.76 resulted in impact of small experiment (The impact caused average influence). Table 2. Table result assesses the development of pupil’s self - learning ability Serial number Indication criteria Asessment Level Experiment class Control class 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 Can determine the learning objectives 5 21 39 9 9 35 27 6 6.76 % 28.37 % 52.70 % 12.17 % 11.69 % 45.45 % 35.06 % 7.80 % 2 Can determine the learning task 6 24 36 8 8 35 29 5 8.11 % 32.43 % 48.65 % 10.81 % 10.39 % 45.45 % 37.66 % 6.50 % 3 Can determine the requirements need to be achieved 6 21 38 9 10 37 25 5 8.11 % 28.38 % 51.35 % 12.16 % 12.99 % 48.05 % 32.47 % 6.49 % 4 Deeply understanding the goal to evaluate and calculate the best appropriate steps, adjusting the learning plan 7 25 34 8 12 39 22 4 9.46 % 33.78 % 45.95 % 10.81 % 15.58 % 50.65 % 28.58 % 5.19 % 5 Establishing the learning style, appropriate self-study so as to achieve high results in their own learning 6 21 40 7 13 36 25 3 8.11 % 28.38 % 54.05 % 9.46 % 16.88 % 46.75 % 32.47 % 3.90 % 50 Developing the student’s self - study abilities through the exercises in... 6 Comparing the learning results so as to make self-assessment, self-awareness 7 23 38 6 13 35 26 3 9.45 % 31.09 % 51.35 % 8.11 % 16.89 % 45.45 % 33.76 % 3.90 % 7 Accumulating the experience, self-adjusting so as to supplement and search information 8 23 36 7 14 37 23 3 10.81 % 31.08 % 48.65 % 9.46 % 18.18 % 48.05 % 29.87 % 3.90 % Through the checklist: each manifestation criterion of self - learning ability, the experiment class’s scores are always higher than those of control class (evidenced by the criteria majority in the experiment class being evaluated at level 3 and level 4), that means the pupils’ self - learning ability in experiment class is more developed than the control class. We can therefore affirm that, the students are taught with new methods of combinating the measures to develop the self - learning ability proposed by us will have quality of better learning and better apply knowledge and skills. 3. Conclusion Developing the self - learning ability for pupils through exercises is one of the most effective teaching methods, meeting the indispensable trend in the today education. Measures of developing the self - learning ability for pupils through the chemical exercises such as experimental exercises, practical exercises, drawing exercises, purely chemical exercises ... increasing the learning interest, helping students actively perceive so as to be easier to absorb the lessons, and bringing back excitement when pupils study Chemistry. Simultaneously, self - learning ability for pupils contribute to the development in ability of problem settlement and creativity, the pupils’ ability to apply knowledge into the reality and optimally promoting the individual potential of each learner called self - learning ability, self - researching which is a very necessary ability. This is the crucial luggage for pupils when enter into life. With the results that teachers and students have made efforts to achieve through these measures, we realized that the development of self-learning ability for pupils through teaching the exercises shall contribute to the improvement of teaching methods in high school in accordance with direction of ability development and quality of students in next time. REFERENCES [1] Cao Thi Thang, 2010.Using a number of positive teaching methods and techniques of positive teaching to develop some basic competencies for pupils in chemistry teaching. Journal of Science, Hanoi National University of Education, No 55(8), page 46 - 53. [2] Nguyen Duc Dung, Hoang Thi Minh Ngoc, 2016. Developing the ability to apply knowledge for high school pupils through a system of organic chemistry exercises with practical contents. Journal of Science, Hanoi National University of Education, No 61(7), page 118. [3] Pham Thi Bich Dao, 2015. Developing the creative ability for high school pupils in organic chemistry of teaching the advanced program. Thesis of Pedagogics Doctor. Hanoi National University of Education.
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